REFERENCES for further reading on Acacia koa

ornamantal bar of koa flowers

Adamski, D.J., N. S. Dudley, C.W. Morden, and D. Borthakur. 2012. Genetic differentiation and diversity of Acacia koa populations in the Hawaiian Islands. Plant Species Biology 27: 181-190. doi: 10.1111/j.1442-1984.2011.00359.x

Adamski, D.J., N. S. Dudley, C.W. Morden, and D. Borthakur. 2013. Cross-amplification of nonnative Acacia species in the Hawaiian Islands using microsatellite markers from Acacia koa. Plant Biosystems 147 (4): 1088-1091, doi: 10.1080/11263504.2012.749958

Ares, A. and J.H. Fownes. 1999. Water supply regulates structure, productivity, and water use efficiency of Acacia koa forest in Hawaii. Oecologia 121: 458-466.

Ares, A., J.H. Fownes, and P. Simmons. 2008. Wood production and native vegetation conservation in Hawaii’s uplands. West. J. Appl. For. 23 (3): 177-182.

Ares, A., J.H. Fownes, and W.G. Sun. 2000. Genetic differentiation of intrinsic water-use efficiency in the Hawaiian native Acacia koa. Int. J. Plant Sci. 161(6): 909-915.

Baker, P.J., and P.G. Scowcroft. 2005. Stocking guidelines for the endemic Hawaiian hardwood Acacia koa. Journal of Tropical Forest Science 17(4): 610-624.

Baker, P.J., A.P. Robinson, and J.J. Ewel. 2008. acrobat icon Sudden and sustained response of crop trees to crown release in stagnant stands. Can. J. of For. Res. 38: 656-666.

Baker, P., P. Scowcroft, and J. Ewel. 2009. acrobat icon Koa (Acacia koa) Ecology and Silviculture, USDA Forest Service, General Technical Report PSW-GTR-211

Daehler, C.C., M. Yorkston, W.G. Sun, and N. Dudley. 1999. Genetic variation in morphology and growth characters of Acacia koa in the Hawaiian islands. Int. J. Plant. Sci. 160(4): 767-773.

Davis, A.S., J.R. Pinto, and D.F. Jacobs. 2011.acrobat icon Early field performance of Acacia koa seedlings grown under subirrigation and overhead irrigation. Native Plants Journal 12(2): 95-99.

Dudley, N., T. Jones, R. James, R. Sniezko, J. Wright, C. Liang, P. Gugger, and P. Cannon. 2017. Applied genetic conservation of Hawaiian Acacia koa: an eco-regional approach [link to].USDA Forest Service General Technical Report PNW-GTR-963.

Dumroese R.K., A.S. Davis, D.F. Jacobs. 2011. Nursery response of Acacia koa seedlings to container size, irrigation method, and fertilization rate. J Plant Nutr 34: 877–887.

Dumroese, R.K., D.F. Jacobs, and A.S. Davis. 2009. Inoculating Acacia koa with Bradyrhizobium and applying fertilizer in the nursery: effects on nodule formation and seedling growth. HortScience. 44(2): 443-446.

Earnshaw, K.M., T.W. Baribault, and D.F. Jacobs. 2016. Alternative field fertilization techniques to promote restoration of leguminous Acacia koa on contrasting tropical sites. For Ecol Manage 376: 126-134.

Elevitch, C.R., K. Wilkinson, and J.B. Friday. 2006.acrobat icon Acacia koa (koa). Pp. 1-28 in: Elevitch, CR, ed. Traditional Trees of Pacific Islands. Permanent Agriculture Resources, Hōlualoa, HI.

Ferentinos, L. and D. Evans, Koa: A Decade of Growth, Proceedings of the Symposium, November 18 and 19, 1996, Honolulu Hawai’i.

Friday, J.B. 2010. acrobat icon Farm and Forestry Production and Marketing Profile for Koa (Acacia koa). In: Elevitch, C.R. (ed.). Specialty Crops for Pacific Island Agroforestry. Permanent Agriculture Resources (PAR), Holualoa, Hawai‘i.

Friday, J.B., P.G. Scowcroft, and A. Ares. 2008.acrobat icon Responses of native and invasive plant species to selective logging in an Acacia koa-Metrosideros polymorpha forest in Hawai‘i. Applied Vegetation Science 11: 471-482. doi: 10.3170/2008-7-18538

Goldstein, J.H., G.C. Daily, J.B. Friday, P.A. Matson, R.L. Naylor, and P. Vitousek. 2006. Business strategies for conservation on private lands: Koa forestry as a case study. PNAS 103(26): 10140-10145.

Gugger, P., C. Liang, V. Sork, P. Hodgskiss, J. Wright. 2017. Applying landscape genomic tools to forest management and restoration of Hawaiian koa (Acacia koa) in a changing environmentEvolutionary Applications 11(2): 231-242.

Haines, W.P., M.L. Heddle, P. Welton, and D. Rubinoff. 2009. A recent outbreak of the Hawaiian koa moth, Scotorythra paludicola (Lepidoptera: Geometridae), and a review of outbreaks between 1892 and 2003. Pacific Science 63(3) 349-369. doi: 10.2984/049.063.0305

Idol, T.W. and G. Diarra. 2017. Mycorrhizal colonization is compatible with exponential fertilization to improve tree seedling quality, Journal of Plant Nutrition, 40:3, 283-297, DOI: 10.1080/01904167.2016.1240188

Idol, T.W., P.J. Baker, and D. Meason. 2007. Indicators of forest ecosystem productivity and nutrient status across precipitation and temperature gradients in Hawaii. Journal of Tropical Ecology 23: 693-704.

Idol, T.W., R. Martinez Morales, J.B. Friday, and P.G. Scowcroft. 2017. Precommercial release thinning of potential Acacia koa crop trees increases stem and crown growth in dense, 8-year-old stands in Hawaii . Forest Ecology and Management 392: 105-114.

Ishihara, Kazue L., Eric K.W. Lee, and Dulal Borthakur. 2017. Thigmomorphogenisis: changes in morphology, biochemistry, and level of transcription in response to mechanical stress in Acacia koa. Can. J. For. Res. 47: 583-593.

Jacobs, D.F., A. Davis, and R.K. Dumroese.acrobat icon Nursery cultural techniques to facilitate restoration of Acacia koa competing with exotic kikuyu grass in a dry tropical forest. Purdue University and University of Idaho.

Lanner, R. 1965. Phenology of Acacia koa on Mauna Loa, Hawaii. USDA Forest Service Research Note PSW-RN-089. 

Leary J., P.W. Singleton, and D. Borthakur. 2004. Canopy nodulation of the endemic tree legume Acacia koa in the mesic forests of Hawaii. Ecology 85:3151-3157.

Le Roux, J.J., D. Strasberg, M. Rouget, C.W. Morden, M. Koordom, and D.M. Richardson. 2014. Relatedness defies biogeography: the tale of two island endemics (Acacia heterophylla and A. koa). New Phytologist 204: 230–242. doi:10.1111/nph.12900

Lowell, E. I., K. Wilson, J. Wiedenbeck, C. Chan, J. B. Friday, and N. Evans. 2017. Consumer preference study of characteristics of Hawaiian koa wood bowls. BioProducts Business Journal 2(5): 42-51.

Lowell, E. E. J. K Wiedenbeck, and B. S Porterfield. 2013. A photographic guide to Acacia koa defects. USDA Forest Service Gen. Tech. Rep. PNW-GTR-871. Portland, OR.

Miyasaka, S.C., M. Habte, and D.T. Matsuyama. 2008. Mycorrhizal dependency of two Hawaiian endemic tree species: Koa and mamane. J of Plant Nutrition 16(7): 1339-1356.

Nelson, S.C. 2006. Grafting of Acacia koa Gray onto young Acacia seedlings. Native Plants Journal 7(2): 137-140.

Ohara, Rebekah Dickens and J. B. Friday, eds. 2017. Acacia koa: Facing the Future. Proceedings of the symposium held October 5, 2017. Tropical Hardwood Tree Improvement and Regeneration Center, Hilo, Hawaii.

Pejchar, L., and D. Press. 2006. Achieving conservation objectives through production forestry: the case of Acacia koa on Hawaii Island. Environmental Science and Policy Vol 9, Issue 5. 439-447. Available at Science Direct.

Pejchar L., K.D. Holl, J.L. Lockwood. 2005. Hawaiian honeycreeper home range size varies with habitat: implications for native Acacia koa forestry. Ecol Appl 15(3): 1053–1061 DOI: 10.1890/04-0577

Pinto, J.R., A.S. Davis, J.J.K. Leary, M.M. Aghai. 2015. Stocktype and grass suppression accelerate the restoration trajectory of Acacia koa in Hawaiian montane ecosystems. New Forests 46: 855. DOI 10.1007/s11056-015-9492-6

RoseK. M. EJ. B. Friday, and D. Jacobs. 2019. Establishment and heteroblasty of Acacia koa in canopy gapsForest Ecology and Management 453.

Scowcroft, P.G. 2012. Parent tree effects on reestablishment of Acacia koa in abandoned pasture and the influence of initial density on stand development. New Forests DOI 10.1007/s11056-012-9352-6

Scowcroft, P. G. 2013. Parent tree effects on reestablishment of Acacia koa in abandoned pasture and the influence of initial density on stand development. New Forests 44: 409-426. DOI 10.1007/s11056-012-9352-6

Scowcroft, P.G. and J.A. Silva 2005.acrobat icon Effects of phosphorus fertilization, seed source, and soil type on growth of Acacia koa. Journal of Plant Nutrition 28: 1581-1603.

Scowcroft, P.G., J.E. Haraguchi, and D. Fujii. 2008. acrobat icon Understory structure in a 23-year-old Acacia koa forest and 2-year growth responses to silvicultural treatments. For. Ecol. Manage. 255: 1604 – 1617.

Scowcroft, P.G., J.B. Friday, J. Haraguchi, T.W. Idol, N.S. Dudley. 2010.acrobat icon Poor stem form as a potential limitation to private investment in koa plantation forestry in Hawaii. Small-scale Forestry. doi: 10.1007/s11842-009-9107-1.

Scowcroft, P.G., J.B. Friday, T. Idol, N. Dudley, J. Haraguchi, and D. Meason. 2007. acrobat icon Growth response of Acacia koa trees to thinning, grass control, and phosphorus fertilization in a secondary stand in Hawai‘i. Forest Ecology and Management 239: 69-80.

Shi, X. and J.L. Brewbaker. 2005. Genetic improvement of Hawaii's premier hardwood, Acacia koa. Forest Genetic Resources. 31:36-40. FAO/Rome.

Sun, W. 1996. Genetic Improvement of Leucaena and Acacia koa. PhD dissertation, University of Hawaii, Honolulu. PDF 8 MB.

Whitesell, C.D. 1990. Acacia koa. In: RM Burns and BH Honkala, eds. Silvics of North America, USDA Forest Service Agriculture Handbook 654.

Wiedenback, J. K, and E. Lowell. 2017. Wood quality of old-growth koa logs and lumber. Forest Products Journal 67(7/8):416-426. Doi: 10.13073/FPJ-D-16-00067

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