Selected peer-reviewed forestry and agroforestry research publications conducted by CTAHR since 1990

ornamental bar of koa leaves

Note: References are listed in alphabetical order by author. For references on termites and resistance of local and tropical woods to termite attack, see the reference list on the UH CTAHR Termite Project web pages.

Adamski D.J., N.S. Dudley, C.W. Morden, and D. Borthakur. 2012. Genetic differentiation and diversity of Acacia koa populations in the Hawaiian Islands. Plant Species Biology. DOI: 10.1111/j.1442-1984.2011.00359.x 

Ainsworth, A., J.B. Kauffman, and C. Litton.  2010. Interactions between fire and nonnative species in Hawaiian forests and shrublands.  Hawaii Forest Journal 5:1-3.

Ayin, C.M., R.L. Schlub, J. Yasuhara-Bell, A.M. Alvarez. 2015. Identification and characterization of bacteria associated with decline of ironwood (Casuarina equisteifolia) in Guam. Australasian Plant Pathol. 44: 225-234. and link to

Ammondt, S., and C.M. Litton. 2012. Competition between native Hawaiian plants and the invasive grass Megathyrsus maximus: Implications of functional diversity for ecological restoration. Restoration Ecology 20(5): 638-646. doi: 10.1111/j.1526-100X.2011.00806.x

Ammondt, S.,  C.M. Litton,  L.E. Ellsworth, and J.K. Leary. 2012. Restoration of native plant communities in a Hawaiian lowland dry ecosystem dominated by the invasive grass Megathyrsus maximus. Applied Vegetation Science 16: 29-39. doi: 10.1111/j.1654-109X.2012.01208.x

Anderson, R.C., D.E. Gardner, C.C. Daehler, and F.C. Meinzer. 2002. Dieback of Acacia koa in Hawaii: ecological and pathological characteristics of affected stands. Forest Ecology and Management 162: 273-286.

Ares, A. and J.H. Fownes. 1999. Water supply regulates structure, productivity, and water use efficiency of Acacia koa forest in Hawaii. Oecologia 121: 458-466.

Ares, A. and J.H. Fownes. 2000. Comparisons between generalized and specific tree biomass functions as applied to tropical ash. New Forests 20: 277-286.

Ares, A. and J.H. Fownes. 2000. Productivity, nutrient and water-use efficiency of Eucalyptus saligna and Toona ciliata in Hawaii. For. Ecol. and Mgmt. 139: 227-236.

Ares, A. and J.H. Fownes. 2001. Productivity, resource use, and competitive interactions of Fraxinus uhdei in Hawaii uplands. Can J. For. Res. 31: 132-142.

Ares, A., J.H. Fownes, and P. Simmons. 2008. Wood production and native vegetation conservation in Hawaii’s uplands. West. J. Appl. For. 23 (3): 177-182.

Ares, A., J.H. Fownes, and W.G. Sun. 2000. Genetic differentiation of intrinsic water-use efficiency in the Hawaiian native Acacia koa. Int. J. Plant Sci. 161(6): 909-915.

Austin, M.T., J.L. Brewbaker, R. Wheeler, and J.H. Fownes. 1997. Short-rotation biomass trial of mixed and pure stands of nitrogen-fixing trees and Eucalyptus grandis. Australian Forestry 60:161-163.

Austin, M.T., R.J. Early, J.L. Brewbaker, and W. Sun. 1997. Yield, psyllid resistance, and phenolic concentration of Leucaena in two environments in Hawaii. Agronomy J. 89:507-515.

Austin, M.T., C.T. Sorensson, J.L. Brewbaker, W. Sun and H.M. Shelton. 1995. Forage dry matter yields and psyllid resistance of thirty-one Leucaena selections in Hawaii. Agroforestry Systems 31:211-222.

Barton, K., and W. Haines. 2013. Koa Looper Caterpillars (Scotorythra paludicola, Geometridae) Have Lower Fitness on Koa (Acacia koa, Fabaceae) True Leaves than on Phyllodes. Proc Hawaiian Ent Soc 45: 141-147.

Binkley, D., C.P. Giardina, and M.A. Bashkin. 2000. Soil phosphorus pools and supply under the influence of Eucalyptus saligna and nitrogen-fixing Albizia falcataria.  For Ecol. and Mgmt. 128: 241-247.

Bruland, G.L., C.A. Browning, and C.I. Evensen. 2010. "Effects of feral pigs (Sus scrofa) on watershed health in Hawaii: A literature review and preliminary results on runoff and erosion." In J. Roumasset, K. Burnett, and A. Balisacan (eds.), Sustainability Science for Watershed Landscapes. Singapore: Institute of Southeast Asian Studies; Los Baños, Philippines: SEARCA, ISEAS Publishing, Singapore, pp. 251-277.

Chan-Halbrendt, C, T. Lin, F. Yang and G. Sisior. 2009. "Hawaiian Residents' Preferences for Miconia Control Program Attributes Using Conjoint Choice Experiment and Latent Class Analysis." Environmental Management 45/2:250-260

Cole, R.J. and C.M. Litton. 2014. Vegetation response to removal of nonnative feral pigs from Hawaiian tropical montane wet forest. Biological Invasions 16: 125-140.

Cole, R.J., C.M. Litton, M.J. Koontz, and R.K. Loh. 2012. Vegetation recovery 16 years after feral pig removal from a wet Hawaiian forest. Biotropica 44(4): 463-471. DOI: 10.1111/j.1744-7429.2011.00841.x

Cole, T.G., R.S. Yost, R. Kablan, and T. Olsen. 1996. Growth potential of twelve Acacia species on acid soils in Hawaii. For. Ecol. and Mgmt. 80: 175-186.

Conroy, N.K., A. Fares, K.C. Ewel, and T. Miura. 2010. "A Snapshot of Agro-forestry in Terminalia Carolinensis Wetlands in Kosrae, Federated States of Micronesia." Micronesica Journal42(1).

Constantinides, M. and J.H. Fownes. 1994. Nitrogen mineralization from leaves and litter of tropical plants: Relationship to nitrogen, lignin, and soluble polyphenol concentrations. Soil Biol. Biochem. 26(1): 49-55.

Cram, D., S. Cordell, J.B. Friday, C. Giardina, C. Litton, E. Moeller, and E. Pickett. 2013. Fire and drought in paradise: Say it isn’t so, Smokey. Rural Connections 7(1): 19-22.

Crews, T.E., K. Kitayama, J.H. Fownes, R.H. Riley, D.A. Herbert, D. Mueller-Dombois, and P.M. Vitousek. 1995. Changes in soil phosphorus fractions and ecosystem dynamics across a long chronosequence in Hawaii. Ecology 76(5): 1407-1424.

Daehler, C.C., M. Yorkston, W.G. Sun, and N. Dudley. 1999. Genetic variation in morphology and growth characters of Acacia koa in the Hawaiian islands. Int. J. Plant. Sci. 160(4): 767-773.

Dudley, N.S. and J.H. Fownes. 1992. Preliminary biomass equations for eight species of fast-growing tropical trees. J. Trop. For Sci. 5:68-73.

Dudley, N.S., T.C. Jones, R.L. James, R.A. Sniezko, P. Cannon, and D. Borthakur. 2015. Applied disease screening and selection program for resistance to vascular wilt in Hawaiian Acacia koa. Southern Forests 77(1): 65-73.

Dunkell, D.O., G.L. Bruland, C.I. Evensen, and M.J. Walker. 2011. Effects of feral pig (Sus scrofa) exclusion on enterococci in runoff from the forested headwaters of a Hawaiian watershed. In Press with Water, Air, & Soil Pollution 221:313-326

Dunkell, D.O., G.L. Bruland, C.I. Evensen, and C.M. Litton. 2011. Runoff, sediment transport, and effects of feral pig (Sus scrofa) exclusion in a forested Hawaiian watershed. Pacific Science 65(2): 175-194. doi: 10.2984/65.2.175

Ellsworth, L.M., C.M. Litton, A. Dale, and T. Miura. Invasive grasses change landscape structure and fire behavior in Hawaii. Applied Vegetation Science 17: 680-689.

Ellsworth, L.M., C.M Litton, and J.J.K. Leary. 2015. Restoration impacts on fuels and fire potential in a dryland tropical ecosystem dominated by the invasive grass Megathyrsus maximus. Restoration Ecology 23:955-963.

Ellsworth, L.M., C.M. Litton, A.D. Taylor, and J.B. Kauffman. 2013. Spatial and temporal variability of guinea grass (Spatial and temporal variability of guinea grass (Megathyrsus maximus) fuel loads and moisture on Oahu, Hawaii.) fuel loads and moisture on Oahu, Hawaii. International Journal of Wildland Fire 22:1083–1092.

Evans, E.W., L.M. Ellsworth, and C.M. Litton. 2015. Impact of grazing on fine fuels and potential wildfire behaviour in a non-native tropical grassland. Pacific Conservation Biology 21, 126–132.

Evensen, C.I. 2010. "Sustainable water quality management for pacific island watersheds: Illustrations from American Samoa, Hawaii, and Micronesia."  In J. Roumasset, K. Burnett, and A. Balisacan (eds.), Sustainability Science for Watershed Landscapes. Singapore: Institute of Southeast Asian Studies; Los Banos, Philippines: Southeast Asian Regional Center for Graduate Study and Research in Agriculture (SEARCA), ISEAS Publishing, Singapore , pp. 279-309.

Fownes, J.H. and R.A. Harrington. 1990. Modelling growth and optimal rotations of tropical multipurpose trees using unit leaf rate and leaf are index. J of Appl. Ecol. 27: 886-896.

Fownes, J.H. and R.A. Harrington. 1992. Allometry of woody biomass and leaf area in five tropical multipurpose trees. Journal of Tropical Forest Science 4 (4): 317-330.

Fownes, J.H. and Raynor, W.C. 1993. Seasonality and yield of breadfruit cultivars in the indigenous agroforestry system of Pohnpei, Federated States of Micronesia. Tropical Agriculture (Trinidad) 70(2): 103-109.

Fredua-Agyeman, R., D. Adamski, R.J. Liao, C. Morden, and D. Borthakur 2008. Development and characterization of microsatellite markers for analysis of population differentiation in the tree legume Acacia koa (Fabaceae: Mimosoideae) in the Hawaiian Islands. Genome 51(12): 1001-1015.

Friday, J.B., S. Cordell, C.P. Giardina, F. Inman-Narahari, N. Koch, J.J.K. Leary, C.M. Litton, and C. Trauernicht. 2015. Future directions for forest restoration in Hawai‘i. New Forests 46:733-746. DOI 10.1007/s11056-015-9507-3

Friday, J.B. and J.H. Fownes. 2001. A simulation model for hedgerow light interception and growth. Agricultural and Forest Meteorology 108: 29-43.

Friday, J.B. and J.H. Fownes. 2002. Competition for light between hedgerows and maize in an alley cropping system in Hawaii, USA. Agroforestry Systems 55(2): 125-137.

Friday, J.B., and H.J. McArthur. 2010. "A participatory approach to community resource management: Building upon local knowledge and concerns." In: Sustainability Science for Watershed Landscapes, Roumasset, J., K. Burnett, and A. Balisacan, eds. SEARCA, University of the Philippines, Los Banos, Laguna, Philippines.

Friday, J.B., P.G. Scowcroft, and A. Ares. 2008. Responses of native and invasive plant species to selective logging in an Acacia koa-Metrosideros polymorpha forest in Hawai‘i.  Applied Vegetation Science 11: 471-482. doi: 10.3170/2008-7-18538

Giardina, C.P., C.M. Litton, S.E. Crow, and G.P. Asner. 2014. Warming-related increases in soil CO2 efflux are explained by increased below-ground carbon flux. Nature Climate Change 4:822-827. doi:10.1038/nclimate2322

Giardina, C.P. and S.C. White. 2000. The effects of fertilization on biomass production of 15 yr old Eucalyptus saligna trees. J. Hawaiian Pacific Agric. 11: 41-44.

Giardina, C.P., D. Binkley, M.G. Ryan, J.H. Fownes, and R.S. Senock. 2004. Belowground carbon cycling in a humid tropical forest decreases with fertilization. Oecologica 139: 545-550.

Giardina, C.P., C.M Litton, J.M. Thaxton, S. Cordell, L.J. Hadway, and D.R. Sandquist. 2007. Science driven restoration: A candle in a demon haunted world–Response to Cabin (2007). Restoration Ecology 15: 171-176.

Giardina, C.P., M.G. Ryan, D. Binkley, and J.H. Fownes. 2003. Primary production and carbon allocation in relation to nutrient supply in a tropical experiment forest. Global Change Biology 9: 1438-1450.

Gleason, S.M. and A. Ares. 2004. Photosynthesis, carbohydrate storage and survival of a native and an introduced tree species in relation to light and defoliation . Tree Physiology 24, 1087-1097.

Gleason S.M., and K.C. Ewel. 2002. Organic matter dynamics on the forest floor of a Micronesian mangrove forest: An investigation of species composition shifts. Biotropica 34 (2): 190-198.

Gleason S.M., K.C. Ewel, and N. Hue. 2003. Soil redox conditions and plant-soil relationships in a micronesian mangrove forest. Estuarine Coastal and Shelf Science 56 (5-6): 1065-1074.

Goldstein, J.H., G.C. Daily, J.B. Friday, P.A. Matson, R.L. Naylor, and P. Vitousek. 2006. Business strategies for conservation on private lands: Koa forestry as a case study. PNAS 103(26): 10140-10145.

Grace, K.T. and J.H. Fownes. 1998. Leaf area allometry and evaluation of non-destructive estimates of total leaf area and loss by browing in a silvopastoral system. Agroforestry Systems 40: 139-147.

Gunatilake, H. and C. Gopalakrishnan. 2010. "Technical Efficiency of Sawmilling and the conservation of Natural Forests: Evidence from Sri Lanka" Journal of Natural Resources Policy Research 2(2):149-169.

Habte, M., G. Diarra, and P.G. Scowcroft. 2011. Post-transplant reactions of mycorrhizal and mycorrhiza-free seedlings of Leucaena leucocephala to pH changes in an Oxisol and Ultisol of Hawaii. Botany 89: 2750283.

Habte, M., S.C. Miyasaka, and D.T. Matsuyama. 2001. Arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi improve early forest-tree establishment. Pp. 644-645 in: W. J. Horst et al. (eds.) Plant nutrition – Food security and sustainability of agro-ecosystems.

Haines, W.P., K. Barton, and P. Conant. 2013. Defoliation of the Invasive Tree Falcataria moluccana on Hawaii Island by the Native Koa Looper Moth (Geometridae: Scotorythra paludicola), and Evaluation of Five Fabaceous Trees as Larval Hostplants. Proc Hawaiian Ent Soc 45: 129-139.

Haines, W.P., M.L. Heddle, P. Welton, and D. Rubinoff. 2009. A recent outbreak of the Hawaiian koa moth, Scotorythra paludicola (Lepidoptera: Geometridae), and a review of outbreaks between 1892 and 2003. Pacific Science 63(3) 349-369. doi: 10.2984/049.063.0305

Harrington, R.A. and J.J. Ewel. 1997. Invasibility of tree plantations by native and non-indigenous plant species in Hawaii. Forest Ecology and Management 99:153-162.

Harrington, R.A. and J.H. Fownes. 1993. Allometry and growth of planted versus coppice stands of four fast-growing tropical tree species. Forest Ecology and Management 56: 315-327.

Harrington, R.A. and J.H. Fownes. 1995. Radiation interception and growth of planted and coppice stands of four fast-growing tropical trees. Journal of Applied Ecology 32:1-8.

Harrington, R.A. and J.H. Fownes. 1996. Predicting spacing effects on growth and optimal rotations of tropical multipurpose trees. Agricultural Systems 50:377-390.

Harrington, R.A., J.H. Fownes, F.C. Meinzer, and P.G. Scowcroft. 1995. Forest growth along a rainfall gradient in Hawaii: Acacia koa stand structure, productivity, foliar nutrients, and water- and nutrient-use efficiencies. Oecologia 102:277-284.

Harrington, R.A., J.H. Fownes, P.G. Scowcroft, and C.S. Vann. 1997. Impact of Hurricane Iniki on native Hawaiian Acacia koa forests: damage and two-year recovery. Journal of Tropical Ecology 13:539-558.

Herbert, D.A. and J.H. Fownes. 1995. Phosphorus limitation of forest leaf area and net primary production on a highly weathered soil. Biogeochemistry 29: 223-235.

Herbert, D.A. and J.H. Fownes. 1997. Effects of leaf aggregation in a broad-leaf canopy on estimates of leaf area index by the gap-fraction method. Forest Ecology and Management 97: 277-282.

Herbert, D.A. and J.H. Fownes. 1999. Forest productivity and efficiency of resource use across a chronosequence of tropical montane soils. Ecosystems 2:242-254.

Herbert, D.A., J.H. Fownes, and P.M. Vitousek. 1999. Hurricane damage to a Hawaiian forest: Nutrient supply rate affects resistance and resilience. Ecology 80(3):908-920.

Hubbard, R.M., M.G. Ryan, C.P. Giardina, and H. Barnard. 2004. The effect of fertilization on sap flux and canopy conductance in a Eucalyptus saligna experimental forest. Global Change Biology 10: 427-436.

Idol, T.W., P.J. Baker, and D. Meason. 2007. Indicators of forest ecosystem productivity and nutrient status across precipitation and temperature gradients in Hawaii. Journal of Tropical Ecology 23: 693-704.

Idol, T.W. and G. Diarra. 2017. Mycorrhizal colonization is compatible with exponential fertilization to improve tree seedling quality, Journal of Plant Nutrition, 40:3, 283-297, DOI: 10.1080/01904167.2016.1240188

Idol, T.W., J. Haggar, and L. Cox. 2011. Ecosystem services from smallholder forestry and agroforestry in the tropics. In: Campbell WB, Ortiz SL (eds) Integrating agriculture, conservation, and ecotourism: examples from the field. Springer, New York, pp 209-270.

Idol, T.W., R. Martinez Morales, J.B. Friday, and P.G. Scowcroft. 2017. Precommercial release thinning of potential Acacia koa crop trees increases stem and crown growth in dense, 8-year-old stands in Hawaii. Forest Ecology and Management 392: 105-114.

Illukpitiya, P. and J.F. Yanagida. 2010. "Farming vs forests: trade-off between agriculture and extraction of non-timber forest products." Ecological Economics 69:1952-1963.

Ise, T., C.M. Litton, C.P. Giardina, and A. Ito. 2010. comparison of modeling approaches for carbon partitioning: Impact on estimates of global net primary production and equilibrium biomass of woody vegetation from MODIS GPP. Journal of Geophysical Research 115:G04025, doi:04010.01029/02010JG001326.

Iwashita, D., C.M. Litton, and C. Giardina. 2013. Coarse woody debris carbon storage across a mean annual temperature gradient in tropical montane wet forest. Forest Ecology and Management 291: 336-343.

Jube, S. and D. Borthakur. 2008. Development of an Agrobacterium-mediated transformation protocol for the tree-legume Leucaena leucocephala using immature zygotic embryos. Plant Cell Tiss Organ Cult. DOI 10.1007/s11240-008-9490-x

Keith, L.M., R.F. Hughes, L.S. Sugiyama, W.P. Heller, B.C. Bushe, and J.B. Friday. 2015. First Report of Ceratocystis Wilt on ʻŌhiʻa ( Metrosideros polymorpha). Plant Disease 99:1276.

Kull, C.A., C.M. Shackleton, P.S. Cunningham, C. Ducatillon, J.D. Dufour Dror, K. Esler, J.B. Friday, A.C. Gouveia, A.R. Griffin, E.M. Marchante, S.J. Midgley, A. Pauchard, H. Rangan, D.M. Richardson, T. Rinaudo, J. Tassin, L.S. Urgenson, G.P. vonMaltitz, R.D. Zenni, and M.J. Zylstra. 2011. Adoption, use and perception of Australian acacias around the world. Diversity and Distributions17(5): 822-836. DOI: 10.1111/j.1472-4642.2011.00783.x

Leary, J.K., J. Gooding, J. Chapman, A. Radford, B. Mahnken and L.J. Cox. 2013. Calibration of an Herbicide Ballistic Technology (HBT) helicopter platform targeting Miconia calvescens in Hawaii. Invasive Plant Science and Management 62(2): 292-303.

Leary J.K., N.V. Hue, P.W. Singleton, and D. Borthakur. 2005. Soil acidification, nutrient depletion, and symbiotic nitrogen fixation are the major features of gorse ( Ulex europaeus) infestation on volcanic soils in Hawaii. Biol. Fertility Soils.

Leary J., P.W. Singleton, and D. Borthakur. 2004. Canopy nodulation of the endemic tree legume Acacia koa in the mesic forests of Hawaii. Ecology 85:3151-3157.

Liang, T.M., M.A. Khan, V.D. Phillips, and W. Liu. 1994. Hawaii Natural Resource Information System: A tool for biomass production management. Biomass and Bioenergy 6(6): 431-441.

Litton, C.M. and C.P. Giardina, 2008. Below-ground carbon flux and partitioning: global patterns and response to temperature. Functional Ecology 22, 941-954 doi: 10.1111/j.1365-2435.2008.01479.x

Litton, C.M., C.P. Giardina, J.K. Albano, M.S. Long and G.P. Asner. 2011. The magnitude and variability of soil surface CO 2 efflux increase with temperature in Hawaiian tropical montane wet forest. Soil Biology and Biochemistry 43: 2315-2323. doi:10.1016/j.soilbio.2011.08.004

Litton C.M., and J.B. Kauffman, 2008. Allometric models for predicting aboveground biomass in two widespread woody plants in Hawaii, U.S.A. Biotropica, 40 313-320.

Litton, C.M., J.W. Raich, and M.G. Ryan. 2007. Carbon allocation in forest ecosystems. adobe reader icon Global Change Biology 13: 2089 - 2109.

Litton, C.M., D.R. Sandquist, and S. Cordell. 2006. Effects of non-native grass invasion on aboveground carbon pools and tree population structure in tropical dry forests of Hawaii. adobe reader icon Forest Ecology and Management 231: 105-113.

Litton, C.M., D.R. Sandquist, and S. Cordell. 2008. A non-native invasive grass increases soil carbon flux in a Hawaiian tropical dry forest. Global Change Biology 14: 726-739

Liu, W., R.A. Merriam, V.D. Phillips, and D. Singh. 1993. Estimating short-rotation Eucalyptus saligna production in Hawaii: An integrated yield and economic model. Bioresource Technology 45: 167-176.

Long, M.S., C.M. Litton, C.P. Giardina, J. Deenik, R.J. Cole, and J.P. Sparks. 2017. Impact of nonnative feral pig removal on soil structure and nutrient availability in Hawaiian tropical montane wet forests. Biological Invasions 19: 749-763.

Mair A., and A. Fares. 2010. Throughfall characteristics in three non-native Hawaiian forest stands. Agricultural and Forest Meteorology 150: 1453-1466. doi:10.1016/j.agrformet.2010.07.007

Mair A., and A. Fares. 2010. Influence of groundwater pumping and rainfall spatio-temporal variation on streamflow. Journal of Hydrology 393: 287-308. doi:10.1016/j.jhydrol.2010.08.026

Mair, A., and A. Fares. 2010. Long-term Rainfall and Streamflow Variability in Makaha Valley, Oahu, Hawaii.; Journal of Hydrology (In Press).

Mair A., A. Fares, and A. El-Kadi. 2007. Effects of rainfall and ground-water pumping on streamflow in Makaha, Oahu, Hawaii. Journal of the American Water Resources Association 43(1): 148-159. DOI: 10.1111/j.1752-1688.2007.00012.x

Martinez Morales, R., T. Idol, and Q. Chen. 2012. Differentiation of Acacia koa forest stands across an elevation gradient in Hawaii using fine-resolution remotely sensed imagery. International Journal of Remote Sensing 33 (11): 3492-3511. doi: 10.1080/01431161.2011.629234

Martinez Morales R., T.W. Idol, and J.B. Friday. 2011. Assessment of Acacia koa forest health across an elevation gradient in Hawai‘i using fine resolution remote sensing and GIS. Sensors 11(6): 5677-5694.doi: 10.3390/s110605677

Martinez Morales R., T. Miura, and T.W. Idol. 2008. An assessment of Hawaiian dry forest condition and restoration potential with fine resolution remote sensing. Forest Ecology and Management 255:2524-2532.

Meason, D.F. and T.W. Idol. 2008. Nutrient Sorption Dynamics of Resin Membranes and Resin Bags in a Tropical Forest. Soil Sci Soc Am J 2008 72: 1806-1814. Published online 30 October 2008; doi: 10.2136/sssaj2008.0010

Meason, D.F., T.W. Idol, J.B. Friday, and P.G. Scowcroft. 2009. Effects of fertilization on phosphorus pools in a young volcanic soil of a managed tropical forest. Forest Ecology and Management 258(10):2199-2206. doi:10.1016/j.foreco.04.001

Meinzer, F.C., J.H. Fownes, and R.A. Harrington. 1996. Growth indices and stomatal control of transpiration in Acacia koa stands planted at different densities. Tree Physiology 16: 607-615.

Miyasaka, S.C., M. Habte, and D.T. Matsuyama. 1993. Mycorrhizal dependency of two Hawaiian endemic tree species. J. Plant Nutrition 16(7): 1339-1356.

Mortenson, L.A., R.F. Hughes, J.B. Friday, L.M. Keith, and J.M. Barbosa. 2016. Assessing spatial distribution, stand impacts and rate of Ceratocystis fimbriata induced ʻōhiʻa (Metrosideros polymorpha) mortality in a tropical wet forest, Hawai‘i Island, USA. Forest Ecology and Management. 377: 83–92.

Murphy, M., F. Inman-Narahari, R. Ostertag, and C.M. Litton, C.M. 2014. Invasive feral pigs reduce tree fern growth and survival in a native-dominated Hawaiian montane wet forest. Biological Invasions 16: 63-71.

Nelson, S.C. 2006. Grafting of Acacia koa Gray onto young Acacia seedlings. Native Plants Journal 7(2): 137-140.

Osorio, N.W. and M. Habte. 2001. Synergistic influence of an arbuscular mycorrhizal fungus and a P solubilizing fungus on growth and P uptake of Leucaena leucocephala. Arid Land Research and Management, 15:263-274.

Pattison, R.R., G. Goldstein, and A. Ares. 1998. Growth, biomass allocation and photosynthesis of invasive and native Hawaiian wet rainforest species. Oecologia 117: 449-459.

Peters, S.M. and M. Habte.  2001. Optimizing solution P concentration in a peat-based medium for producing mycorrhizal seedlings in containers. Arid Land Research and Management 15:359-370

Phillips, V.D., W. Liu, R. Merriam, and D. Singh. 1994. Potential for short-rotation intensive-culture hardwood production in Hawaii. Agricultural Systems 46 (1) 33-57.

Phillips, V.D., D. Singh, R. Merriam, and A. Khan. 1993. Land available for biomass crop production in Hawaii. Agricultural Systems 43(1): 1 – 17.

Pierce, A., S. McDaniel, M. Wasser, A. Ainsworth, C.M. Litton, C.P. Giardina, and S. Cordell. 2014. Using a prescribed fire to test custom and standard fuel models for fire behavior prediction in a non-native, grass-invaded tropical dry shrubland. Applied Vegetation Science 17: 700-710.

Pinto, J.R., A.S. Davis, J.J.K. Leary, and M.M. Aghai. 2015. Stocktype and grass suppression accelerate the restoration trajectory of Acacia koa in Hawaiian montane ecosystems. New Forests 46:855-867. DOI 10.1007/s11056-015-9492-6

Raynor, W.C. and J.H. Fownes. 1991. Indigenous agroforestry of Pohnpei. 1. Plant species and cultivars. Agroforestry Systems 16: 139-157.

Raynor, W.C. and J.H. Fownes. 1991. Indigenous agroforestry of Pohnpei. 2. Spatial and successional vegetation patterns. Agroforestry Systems 16: 159-165.

Rosecrance, R.C., J.L. Brewbaker and J.H. Fownes. 1992. Alley cropping of maize with nine leguminous trees. Agroforestry Systems 17:159-16

Rushanaedy I., T.C. Jones, N.S. Dudley, R.J.F. Liao, R. Agbayahni, and D. Borthakur. 2012. Chitinase is a Potential Molecular Biomarker for Detecting Resistance to Fusarium oxysporum in Acacia koa. Tropical Plant Biology. DOI: 10.1007/s12042-012-9108-7

Ryan M.G., D. Binkley, and J.H. Fownes. 1996. Age-related decline in forest productivity: Pattern and process. Advances in Ecological Research. 27:213-262.

Ryan, M.G., D. Binkley, J.H. Fownes, C.P. Giardina, and R.S. Senock. 2004. An experimental test of the causes of forest growth decline with stand age. Ecological Monographs 74(3): 393-414.

Saafi, H. and D. Borthakur. 2002. In vitro plantlet regeneration from cotyledon of the tree legume Leucaena leucocephala. Plant Growth Regulation 38:279-285.

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The object of forestry is to discover and apply the principles according to which forests are best managed. - Gifford Pinchot

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