Volume 54 April | May | June 2024

Providing science-based information to serve Hawaiʻi's Farming Community


The Food Provider

April | May | June 2024

Aloha Kākou


Welcome to the June 2024 issue of HānaiʻAi!


This issue features articles by University of Hawai'i researchers discussing topics such as sustainable covercrop mixtures for turmeric production, integrated pest management for Hawai'i, small scale polyculture agroforestry systems, and entomopathogenic fungi to mitigate sweetpotato weevils. This issue, our feature farmer is 2K Farm LLC, located in Waianae on Oahu.

Please take a moment to browse new CTAHR publications, and get caught up with what is happening in the world of organic management at our Organic Corner, organic transitioning and air layering and tomato seed saving with Master Gardeners.  


Make sure to visit the "back pages" of the newsletter, which also feature Upcoming Workshops, Conferences, and Meetings.


You can always stay up to date with weekly agriculture related activities via Instagram, Facebook and Twitter.


As always, the mission of HānaiʻAi is to provide a venue for the dissemination of science-based information to serve all of Hawaiʻi's farming community in our quest for agricultural sustainability.


On-line version of newsletter as well as archived issues available at:  Hānai'Ai Archives


Click Here to View as Webpage

Feature Farmer:

Katsuhiro Kobashigawa

2K Farm, LLC

Waianae, HI

How long have you been farming? Area currently under production?: Grew up farming with my father but have been farming on my own since 1983. Currently farming 7 acres. 


How many years has your current operation been in production? Producing green onions since 1991


Crops grown, animals raise, other goods & services? Green onions


Number of employees and/or family members involved in the operation? 4 workers plus myself and my partner. So 6 people total. 


What is your production system and fertility management? Our production system is primarily conventional, but we have cut back significantly over the years. The biggest change has been in fertilizer use.


Hot Tips: Be open minded and understand farming is gonna be a hard lifestyle. Be realistic. Need to make a living from farming; if cannot, then why farm. You need to grow the same thing consistently and good quality over and over. Keep up with the economy and inflation. You got to WANT to farm.



Mahalo nui loa to Katsuhiro Kobashigawa

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Sustainable & Organic Research &

Outreach News

News from Hawaiʻi's Researchers and Extension Professionals

Optimizing Cover Crop Mixtures for Sustainable Turmeric Production in Hawaii

Alina Wood, Theodore J.K. Radovich, Kevin Flanagan, Koon-Hui Wang, Roshan Paudel, Amjad Ahmad, Kent Kobayashi, Eric S. Collier

Dept of Plant and Environmental Protection Sciences, Dept Tropical Plant Soil Sciences

University of Hawaii at Mānoa


As consumer demand for turmeric continues to grow, Hawaii's turmeric growers are seeking more sustainable cultivation methods beyond conventional high-input practices (Kirk et al. 2023; Pant et al. 2013). One promising approach is integrating cover crops between turmeric rows to provide valuable ecological services like weed suppression, nutrient enhancement, and improved soil health. However, guidance on the ideal cover crop species mixtures for intercropping with turmeric in Hawaii's unique tropical environment has been lacking. To address this knowledge gap, researchers at the University of Hawaii's Waimanalo Research Station conducted a comprehensive field study evaluating various cover crop combinations when planted alongside the popular turmeric variety 'Roma'. The overarching goal was to identify top-performing mixtures that local growers can implement to boost turmeric yields while transitioning to more sustainable production systems.


Read full article

FMI: Theodore J.K. Radovich

Integrated Pest Management for Edible Crops in Hawai'i

Koon-Hui Wang, Ikkei Shikano and Jensen Uyeda

Dept of Plant and Environmental Protection Sciences, Dept Tropical Plant Soil Sciences

University of Hawaii at Mānoa


Integrated Pest Management (IPM) is a sustainable approach to managing pests by combining biological, cultural, physical, and chemical tools to minimize the economic, health, and environmental risks, based on science to maximize crop yield. The University of Hawai'iʻs Department of Plant and Environmental Protection Sciences in conjunction with their partners over the years have provided comprehensive guidelines for several of Hawai'iʻs agricultural pests. With links to crop specific articles, you can use your smartphone to gain access to valuable information to help you mitigate pest pressure in your operation.


Read full article

FMI: Koon-Hui Wang


Small-Scale Polyculture Agroforestry Systems: Enhancing Food Security and Sustainability 

Kyle Franks

Maui County Extension

University of Hawaii at Mānoa


 Recent studies highlight the historical significance of agroforestry in Hawaii, where traditional practices sustained communities for centuries through the integration of "canoe plants" with other culturally significant and productive species, modern agroforestry initiatives aim to enhance food security and sustainability. Pilot programs, such as those conducted at Molokai Cooperative Extension, demonstrate the potential of agroforestry to address food insecurity and promote community resilience while incorporating the community into its creation and development. This paper examines the principles of polyculture agroforestry, explores the concept of syntropic agriculture, and discusses recent efforts to implement such systems, particularly in regions like Hawaii, where agroforestry has historical significance.


Read Full Article Article

FMI: Kyle Franks

Benefits of an Entomopathogenic Fungus, Metarhizium, for enhancing Sweetpotato Growth and Sweetpotato Weevil Suppression

Landon Wong, Koon-Hui Wang and Brent Sipes Department of Plant and Environmental Protection Sciences, University of Hawaii at Mānoa


Metarhizium has traditionally been known as an

entomopathogenic fungus, meaning it can infect and kill insect pests and has been used as a

bioinsecticide. Recently, Metarhizium has been reported to have growth promoting properties on crop plants and improved growth of numerous plant species. With sweetpotato, the relationship between Metarhizium and the host plant, can be very beneficial. Sweetpotato is attacked by the sweetpotato weevil, reducing yields by up to 100%. However, interestingly applying entomopathogenic fungi reduced tuber damage by C. formicarius, producing higher yields. Researches at CTAHR studied the effects of Metarhiziumʻs effect on its effects on sweetpotato improvement, and the repelling and suppression of sweetpotato weevil.


Read full article

FMI: Koon-Hui Wang

Using Cover Crops and Soil Aeration to Mitigate Impact of Phytophthora in Macadamia Orchards

Andrew Trump1 and Koon-Hui Wang2

1 Department of Tropical Plant and Soil Sciences,

2 Department of Plant and Environmental Protection Sciences, University of Hawai'i at Mānoa


Macadamia (Macadamia integrifolia) production in Hawai’i has declined in recent years due to the reduction in production per acre, from an average of 3,080 lbs per acre from 2000-2010 to an average yield of 2,300 lbs per acre for 2022 -2023. Likely culprits are feral hogs, and Macadamia Felted Coccid (MFC). However, root diseases caused by Phytophthora spp. have long been reported to cause diseases of macadamia, contributing to the decline in health and production of macadamia trees. University of Hawai’i researchers evaluated if the potential of using cover crops and soil aeration as cultural control methods in macadamia orchards could mitigate the impact of Phytophthora spp.


Read full article

FMI: Kooh-Hui Wang

Other CTAHR Publications & Programs

for sustainable and organic production systems 

CTAHR Publications

Organic Corner + University of Hawai'i Organic Transition (UHOT)

Hawai’i Organic Growers Must Apply for Organic Cost Share by Oct. 31, 2024

Organic producers and handlers can now apply for U.S. Department of Agriculture (USDA) funds to assist with the cost of receiving or maintaining organic certification. Applications for the Organic Certification Cost Share Program (OCCSP) are due October 31, 2024 to your county office of the Farm Service Agency (FSA). Eligible producers include any certified producers or handlers who have paid organic certification fees. Producers can be reimbursed for expenses made between Oct. 1, 2023 and Sept. 30, 2024 including application fees, inspection costs, fees related to equivalency agreement and arrangement requirements, travel expenses for inspectors, user fees, sales assessments and postage. For 2024, OCCSP will reimburse 75% of a certified operation’s allowable certification costs, up to a maximum of $750 for each of the following categories: crops, wild crops, livestock, processing/handling.

A complete application includes the following:

  • a completed CCC-884, OCCSP Application
  • USDA organic certificate
  • itemized invoice showing expenses paid to a certifying agent for certification services Note: Records showing an amount due that do not indicate that payment has been made by the producer or handler will not be accepted.
  • SF-3881, Direct Deposit if not previously filed. Payments will be transmitted via direct deposit.
  • CCC-902E, Farm Operating Plan, if not previously filed and the applicant is an entity.

To apply through FSA, you can find a Hawai’i FSA county office near you here: https://go.hawaii.edu/Fw5

Make sure to inquire and apply early, as offices are short staffed and application volume can be high.

Read the Organic Certification Cost Share Fact sheet here: https://go.hawaii.edu/FMo


NOP Publishes Handbook Updates and Responses to Frequently Asked Questions

The USDA has published an updated version of the National Organic Program (NOP) Handbook. This public resource provides USDA-accredited certifiers and certified operations with guidance, instructions, and other policy documents that can help them comply with the USDA organic regulations.  

Several handbook documents have been updated or archived because they have been replaced by new regulations, such as the Strengthening Organic Enforcement (SOE) rule. In addition, USDA relocated general education resources from the handbook to more relevant locations on NOP’s website and in the Organic Integrity Learning Center.  

The 2024 NOP Program Handbook Update includes a list of updated and archived documents, citations to the regulations that supersede them, and relocated documents with their new locations. These references can be found on the NOP Handbook web page


Proposed Changes to the USDA Organic Mushroom Standards

The USDA Agricultural Marketing Service (AMS) has published a proposed rule in the Federal Register to amend the USDA organic regulations. The rule proposes specific standards for organic mushroom production The proposed changes are based on public input and NOSB recommendations. For organic mushrooms, this proposed rule would:  

  • Clarify which existing crop production standards apply to organic mushroom production. 
  • Create a mushroom-specific standard for organic compost production. 
  • Require operations producing organic mushrooms to:
  • Use organic materials for the uncomposted portions of production substrate when commercially available. 
  • Use organic spawn media when commercially available. 
  • Use organic mushroom spawn when commercially available.

To view the proposed rule, click here.

HFUU is looking for both interested farmer participants and for experienced mentors. It has been decided to roll out the program statewide and HFUU is seeking applicants from all islands! There has been a lot of interest in the program and we thought it would be best to roll things out as quickly as possible.


Please reach out to organictransitions@hfuu.org and we will get you an application! Once you are signed up as an interested farmer, the Project Coordinator will get you the application form. Once it has been returned, there will be an initial interview to learn more about your farming operation before being paired with a mentor to begin your journey to becoming an organic farming operation!

Master Gardenersʻ Corner

Air Layering


During a workshop led by Dr. Alberto Ricordi, Assistant Extension Agent, at the Urban Garden Center in Pearl City in March 2024, gardeners practiced the technique of air layering on plumeria (Plumeria spp.), native yellow hibiscus or maʻo hau hele (Hibiscus brackenridgei), and song of India (Dracaena reflexa). Air layering was used for about 4,000 years. Today, it’s used to propagate a variety of trees and shrubs, including lychee (Litchi chinensis), longan (Dimocarpus longan), and Persian lime (Citrus aurantifolia). It’s also useful for reproducing plants from genera like Ficus, Croton, Monstera, and Philodendron. This article by the Oahu Master Gardeners goes into detail about air layering, the tools needed and the steps involved.


Read full article

Tomato Seed Saving


There are many reasons why gardners and farmers alike should save their seeds. Since Hawai'i has varying climate zones. Collecting and saving seeds should begin with local seeds. Local seeds have been adapted to Hawai'i climate and have greater tolerance and resistance of diseases prevelant in Hawai'i. This seed saving guide is for tomatos. This presentation goes into great detail about saving locally bred tomato seeds.


Read full presentation


For New Farmers

Coworking Hub

Small businesses and entrepreneurs can get in-person support at the Coworking Hub on the second Wednesday of each month from the City's Resource Connector team.

Get referrals for help with government contracting, connecting with accelerator programs, social media and marketing, how to import or export goods, and more. A full list of services is below. 

Appointments are free! If you’re a startup that has been operating for less than 24 months, or if you are an existing business, make an appointment for in-person support now!



  • Exploring Government Contracting
  • Agricultural Support Services
  • Energy Rebates
  • Help Navigating City Processes
  • Connecting with Accelerator Programs
  • Buying or Selling a Business
  • Social Media
  • Marketing Strategies
  • Importing/Exporting
  • Veteran-Owned Business Assistance


The Coworking Hub Location:

1050 Queen St. Suite #100, Honolulu, HI 96814

Pakini loan fund for small businesses

The new Pakini loan fund program offers loans from $1,000 to $30,000 for small businesses in Hawaiʻi. While the Pakini fund prioritizes serving Native Hawaiians living and working in the Waiʻanae Moku on Oʻahu, the program fund is open to all eligible small businesses in Hawai'i. Visit their website for more information.


Solution Focused

  • Provide financial products and services, including loans and financial/business education.
  • Collaborate with other financial institutions and financial service providers to support our participants.
  • Provide 1:1 business consulting to prepare our participants and strengthen their ability to secure traditional funding.
  • Support our participants through the process by being a Hawaiian-culture-based model and reinforcing the inherent strengths of our community.

The Office of Economic Revitalization (OER) was created to drive the City and County of Honolulu's economic development strategy.


OER works with partners to create an economy for Oʻahu that is more resilient, diverse, equitable, and filled with good jobs that care for our people and our place. OER provides information and opportunities for small business owners, job-seekers, farmers, innovators, community-based organizations, and everyone who is doing their part to improve the quality of life on Oʻahu.


FYI & Events

Soil Sampling


What is soil sampling?

Soil sampling is the process of collecting a small amount of soil for analysis at a lab. It is an important step

in making sound environmental and economic decisions that affect farm management and soil fertility. Periodic soil sampling, about every three to five years, help in evaluating changes in soil over time, providing a more accurate representation of field conditions. 


The soil sample will answer several important questions regarding field conditions such as:


Soil pH - How acidic or alkaline the soil is. Plants tend to thrive when the soil pH is between 5.5 and 7.5 with some exceptions. When the soil is within the optimal range, soil nutrients will be made more available for the plants.


Available nutrients - elements and various compounds that are easily absorbed by the plant.


Organic Matter - is any material that was originally produced by a living organism such as a plant or animal that is broken down in various stages. Productive soil has between 5-6% organic matter.


Micronutreints - are the elements that plants need and are essential in very small amounts for proper plant productivity


Soil Salinity - is the salt content in the soil. Too much salt minerals in the soil can reduce crop yields, which makes it more difficult for the plant to extract water from the soil, causes toxicity to the plant, and disrupts the nutritional balance of the plants.


How to collect a soil sample?

The soil sample should be a representation of the entire field and should include 5 to 10 subsamples of about the same amount and then mixed together as they are collected. Once all the subsamples have been mixed, take a sample from the mixture to send to the soil analysis lab.


Where do I send the soil sample?

As of June 8, 2023 University of Hawai’i Agricultural Diagnostic Service Center (ADSC) will no longer accept soil, plant, forage, feed, and/or food samples. As an effective alternative the extension faculty has successfully sent soil samples to


1.   Midwest Labs

2.   Crop Nutrient Solutions, Inc

Contact Peter Bunn, CPA





Additional Resources from the College of Tropical Agriculture and Human Resources

Hawai'i Ag Mental Health Workshop with SOW Project Team

Learn how to recognize signs of stress/mental health challenges, and take away tools and tips with certified agricultural health mentors from the SOW project team. SOW’s mission is to understand and advocate for the wellbeing of farmers, ranchers and allied agricultural producers in Hawaiʻi and provide tools and skills for stress management. Space for this workshop is limited.


For more information contact: sow.ctahr@gmail.com

Register Here

FarmRaise is an educational hub made possible through the collaborative efforts of Farm Service Agency (FSA) and FarmRaise. The mission is to empower FSA partners and the farmers they serve learn about accessing Farm Service Agency Programs. This site provides educational resources, how-to videos, visual aids, and Section 508 compliant tools, designed to streamline access to vital FSA programs and resources.



The Art of Beekeeping: A 4-Part Class for Beginning Beekeepers Join Bird and Bee Hawai'i for a unique in person beekeeping course created for students wishing to learn all aspects of how to start beekeeping. Participants will be given weekly reading materials and provided basic beekeeping equipment and supplies to start their own colonies. There will be classroom talks and lots of hands on experience in active bee colonies.


Classes are kept at an 8 person class size and participants are given individualized attention throughout the course, as well as free mentoring through email and a site visit (if requested) after the completion of the course. 


All participants will receive a certificate of completion upon the completion of the class.


If you have more questions, please contact us at 808-936-6019 or birdandbeehawaii@gmail.com


Honoka’a on the Big Island of Hawai'i

Click here for more info



Public concern over the use of commercial herbicides has resulted in a ban on these pesticides in many public landscapes in Hawaii such as schools, parks, and city-managed sports venues. Many of our schools have turf areas that are heavily used and

provide an important function for physical education activities and other school functions. Due to neglect and a lack of knowledge in the maintenance of healthy turf, these lawns turn into a weedy mess with irritating thorns and bunch-type weeds that pose a tripping hazard for active students. The Honolulu School for the Deaf and Blind (HSDB) reached out to the University of Hawai'i College of Tropical Agriculture and Human Resources to assist them with their turf. This project was able to help HSDB determine which cultivars of Bramuda Grass, seeding and fertilizing rates, as well as discusses the approach to the turf renovation.


Click here for full article

www.hawaiiscape.com publications


Farm Service Agency Seeking Nominations for Farmers and Ranchers to Serve on Local County Committees

Nominations are now being accepted for farmers and ranchers to serve on local U.S. Department of Agriculture (USDA) Farm Service Agency (FSA) county committees. These committees make important decisions about how federal farm programs are administered locally. All nomination forms for the 2024 election must be postmarked or received in the local FSA office by Aug. 1, 2024.  


More Information    

Producers should contact their local FSA office today to register and find out how to get involved in their county’s election, including if their LAA is up for election this year. To be considered, a producer must be registered and sign an FSA-669A nomination form. This form and other information about FSA county committee elections are available at fsa.usda.gov/elections.

Livestock Wala'au: Livestock Podcast

Livestock Wala'au podcast presented by the University of Hawaiʻi College of Tropical Agriculture and Human Resources. This podcast serves as a way for the livestock community to connect, talk story, and learn.


Listen to the Podcast


Western Region Sustainable Agriculture and Education Program (WSARE)

Special RFA: Sustainable Agriculture Action Plans

We are soliciting applications to lead a consultative process and create a Sustainable Agriculture Action Plan to document the research, regulatory, infrastructure, and educational needs and priorities required to increase sustainable agriculture practices in a specific industry/commodity or geographical location in the Western SARE region.


The Sustainable Agriculture Action Plan (SAAP) intends to provide important stakeholder-derived feedback about the sustainable agriculture needs and priorities of specific industries and geographic locations to university researchers, Extension specialists, regulators, non-governmental agencies, elected officials, the USDA, and other potential funders.


View previous SAAP reports.Questions regarding this Request for Applications can be directed to:


Sara Trojan

Associate Coordinator

Professional Development Program

Western SARE



Western SARE, Professional+Producer

This grant program involves agricultural technical advisor (main applicant) and producers implementing projects to address identified needs in sustainable agriculture. With the collaboration of at least three producers, projects must integrate research and education aiming to advance the three components of sustainable agriculture- environmental, economic, and social- and use innovative educational outreach to disseminate new knowledge to producers and other agricultural stakeholders. It is expected that outcomes of funded projects will result in quantifiable benefits for producers, increase the preservation of the natural and social resources upon which agriculture relies, and be shared with other producers. $85,000 limit/one-three years in scope.


Download CFP


Reach out with any questions: wsare-partnership@sare.org 



The Western SARE Farmer/Rancher Research & Education Grant Program focuses on advancing on-farm sustainability solutions by funding innovative producer-driven research and outreach. This grant program involves agricultural producers (main applicants) and technical advisor(s) implementing projects to address identified needs in sustainable agriculture.

We recognize that producers are always innovating and improving on-farm/ranch practices. This program aims to honor producer innovation by funding on-farm research that benefits and is led by producers themselves. We encourage you to explore whether this grant program is right for you.


How the Program Works


Projects with 1-2 producers may apply for up to $25,000 and projects with 3 or more producers working together may apply for up to $29,900.

With a Farmer/Rancher Grant, a producer and a technical advisor work together to develop a project (1-3 years in scope) that conducts both research and outreach on a sustainable agriculture topic. With the support and guidance of the technical advisor, producers must integrate research and education to conduct on-site/on-farm experiments to address social, environmental, and economic aspects of agricultural sustainability. The goal of this program is to achieve results that can be communicated to other producers and professionals; sustain and improve the environmental quality and natural resource base on which agriculture depends; improve the profitability of producers and associated agricultural businesses; and enhance the quality of life for producers in local communities. Outreach activities may include on-farm/ranch demonstrations, farmer-to-farmer educational activities, and other approaches to assist producer adoption of sustainable agricultural practices.


Download CFP


We Encourage you to Contact Us!

Reach out with any questions: wsare-fr@sare.org


Local Education and Demonstration Grants

Funding for the Local Education and Demonstration (LED) grants will help increase the application and adoption of the results and recommendations from previous SARE-funded research by identifying and overcoming the environmental, economic, and social hindrances of adopting sustainable agricultural practices locally.


The Local Education and Demonstration grant program is founded on the understanding that adopting sustainable agricultural practice(s) entails change and managing potential financial, environmental, and social risks. The implementation of demonstration and/or education events can address local issues related to the adoption of sustainable agricultural practices, bolstering confidence in adoption, and reducing risks. Successful proposals are required to integrate findings from previously-funded SARE research projects, translate those results into practical demonstrations of application, and bring those results into the field through demonstration and/or educational activities for agricultural professionals and producers.

Strategies to conduct education and/or demonstration for adopting sustainable agricultural practices include, but are not limited to:

  • local demonstrations
  • trainings
  • focus groups
  • providing technical assistance
  • developing educational materials
  • the application of research results

by farmers, ranchers, Extension agents, governmental agencies, or non-governmental agencies.


Download CFP


Research and Education Pre-Proposal

The Research & Education Program involves scientists, agricultural producers, and others using interdisciplinary approaches to advance sustainable agriculture through innovative research and outreach.


Archived CFP

SARE is a program of the U.S. Department of Agriculture's National Institute for Food and Agriculture that provides competitive grants and educational materials. Our grants programs are conducted cooperatively by farmers, ranchers, researchers, and ag professionals to advance farm and ranch systems that are profitable, environmentally sound, and good for communities.

The SARE grant program mission is to advance innovations that improve profitability, stewardship, and quality of life in American agriculture by investing in groundbreaking research and education. To achieve that, Western SARE believes that our programs must include the involvement of agricultural producers from inception to finish, and therefore we require producer involvement in the planning, design, implementation, and educational outreach of any funded project.


Western SARE Goals

• Promote good stewardship of the nation’s natural resources by providing site-specific, regional, and profitable sustainable farming and ranching methods that strengthen agricultural competitiveness; satisfy human food and fiber needs; maintain and enhance the quality and productivity of soil; conserve soil,

water, energy, natural resources, and fish and wildlife habitat; and maintain and improve the quality of surface and ground water.


• Enhance the quality of life of farmers and ranchers and ensure the viability of rural communities, for example, by increasing income and employment, especially profitable self-employment and innovative marketing opportunities in agricultural and rural communities.


• Protect the health and safety of those involved in food and farm systems by reducing, where feasible and practical, the use of toxic materials in agricultural production, and by optimizing on-farm resources and integrating, where appropriate, biological cycles 

and controls.


• Promote crop, livestock, and enterprise diversification.


• Examine the regional, economic, social, and environmental implications of adopting sustainable agriculture practices and systems.

This e-publication is supported through the United States Department of Agriculture (USDA) Transition to Organic Partnership Program (TOPP). TOPP is a program of the USDA Organic Transition Initiative and is administered by the USDA Agricultural Marketing Service (AMS) National Organic Program (NOP).


This e-publication has been prepared by CTAHR research scientists and extension staff to deliver science-based information about sustainable and organic production systems to serve Hawaiʻi's farming community.


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Mahalo nui loa,


Eric Collier Education Specialist and Managing Editor

Amjad Ahmad, Kylie Tavares & Emilie Kirk Co-Reviewers

Sharon Wages Jensen Uyeda WSARE Content Reviewers

Theodor Radovich Editor-in-Chief


Sustainable and Organic Agriculture Program

Cooperative Extension Service

College of Tropical Agriculture and Human Resources


On-line version of newsletter as well as archived issues available at:  



Hawai‘i Cooperative Extension is an equal opportunity/affirmative action institution providing programs and services to the people of Hawai‘i without regard to race, sex, gender identity and expression, age, religion, color, national origin, ancestry, disability, marital status, arrest and court record, sexual orientation, or status as a covered veteran.


Eric Collier | Education Specialist, Social Media & Web Manager | colliere@hawaii.edu

Copyright ©2013 University of Hawai‘i - College of Tropical Agriculture and Human Resources. Updated 4 Nov, 2021

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