Volume 47 July | August | September 2022

Providing science-based information to serve Hawaiʻi's Farming Community


The Food Provider

July | Aug | Sept 2022

Aloha Kākou


This September 2022 issue of HānaiʻAi features a multitude of articles that both producers and gardeners will enjoy. Our featured articles include topics such as backyard and classroom hydroponic systems, soil management practices and an introduction to the National Resource Conservation Serviceʻs programs. Find out about available grants, as well as listen to a lecture on Nutsedge. Take a moment to browse new CTAHR publications, and get caught up with what is happening in the world of organic management at our Organic Corner and much more. 


Make sure to visit the "back pages" of the newsletter as well, which feature Upcoming Workshops, Conferences and Meetings, and the latest news on organic production.


Stay up to date with our weekly SOAP activities via Instagram, Facebook and Twitter, links are below.


As always, the mission of HānaiʻAi is to provide a venue for the dissemination of science-based information to serve all of Hawaiʻi's farming community in our quest for agricultural sustainability.


On-line version of newsletter as well as archived issues available at:  



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Feature Farmer: Ahiki Acres Matt McKinnon and Haley Miyaoka

How long have you been farming? 

4 years farming. 


How many years has your current operation been in production?

3 years.


What crops do you grow? Animals do you raise? Any other goods and services you provide (i.e. value added)?

Beets, radishes, salad mix, baby romaine, tomatoes, cucumbers, eggplant, carrots, beans, kale, Swiss chard, cauliflower, spinach, herbs, turmeric, papaya


Read the full article here.

Hot Tips from Ahiki Acres

Don’t neglect your soil health! Never stop experimenting!


Mahalo nui loa to Ahiki Acres 

Read More
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Sustainable & Organic Research &

Outreach News

News from Hawaiʻi's Researchers and Extension Professionals

 Hydroponic Solutions for Backyard or Classroom Systems 

Pono Chung¹, Christine Hanakawa2, Tina Lau3, Jensen Uyeda3, Amjad Ahmad3, and Jari Sugano1** 

University of Hawaiʻi at Mānoa, College of Tropical Agriculture and Human Resources 

¹Oahu County, ²Department of Family and Consumer Sciences, 3Department of Tropical Plant and Soil Sciences 


 Food sustainability is important when living in an island state like Hawaiʻi. Growing food close to home helps to advance food security. If you don’t have a yard with soil or a large area to grow, you can still support the food growing movement, by growing food hydroponically. Crop productivity per square meter of a hydroponic unit is greater than a soil-based system, and also more water efficient (Samangooei, et al. 2016). Access to soil-based systems is becoming more difficult in residential and school settings due to urbanization. 


 Dr. Bernard Kratky of the University of Hawaiʻi at Mānoa, College of Tropical Agriculture and Human Resources (CTAHR) developed a system called the non-circulating hydroponic method or static hydroponics. The static hydroponic method is simple and easy for the user. 


Click here to read the full article

A Visual Recipe to Simple Hydroponics

Christine Hanakawa1, Jensen Uyeda2, Amjad Ahmad2, Jari Sugano3, Nancy Ooki1, Koon Hui Wang4 University of Hawaiʻi at Mānoa, College of Tropical Agriculture and Human Resources ¹ Department of Family and Consumer Sciences, ² Department of Tropical Plant and Soil Sciences, 3 Oahu County,       4Department of Plant and Environmental Protection Sciences


For the visual learner, there is a handout with steps and pictures to build a simple static hydroponics system that was developed by Dr. Bernard Kratky of the University of Hawai’i at Mānoa, College of Tropical Agriculture and Human Resources (CTAHR). The handout illustrates the recipe to build a static hydroponics for individuals of all ages, including younger youth who needs adult supervision.


Click here for the visual recipe article

Static Hydroponics visual recipe!

In Transition Towards Organic Farming: Effects of Rock Phosphate, Coral Lime, and Green Manure on Soil Fertility of an Acid Oxisol and the Growth of Soybean (Glycine max) Seedlings

Robert Huang and N.V. Hue

Agricultural Diagnostic Services Center and Department of Tropical Plant and Soil Sciences

College of Tropical Agriculture and Human Resources, University of Hawaiʻi at Manoa


Maintaining soil fertility and obtaining good crop yields in highly weathered tropical soils through organic practices – without chemical/synthetic inputs—requires a scientific approach and skillful managements. A controlled (greenhouse) experiment was conducted to quantify soil properties, and soybean (Glycine max cv. Kahala) growth when rock phosphate, coral lime, and cowpea (Vigna unguiculata) green manure were applied as organic amendments to an acid, nutrient poor Oxisol of Hawaii. Results showed that a combination of 1 g/kg (2 tons/ha) of lime and 75 mg/kg (150 kg P/ha) of rock P provided enough P for soybean growth and simultaneously alleviated soil acidity problems (the green manure was to supply adequate N and K to the crop).


Read Read full Article Article

FMI:Hue Nguyen

A Passion for Conservation

By Terri Dux

Natural Resources Conservation Service (NRCS)


The heat of the afternoon sun takes a heavy toll when you are out in the field working your kalo. However, it is time well spent knowing you are providing fresh local food for your community and caring for the land, ecosystems, and the future.


Partnering with the Natural Resources Conservation Service (NRCS), farmers, ranchers, and private forest owners and managers can receive technical information and assistance and financial assistance for implementing conservation activities.


In the Pacific Islands Area (PIA), the mission is clearly defined:

“We deliver conservation solutions so agricultural producers can protect natural resources and feed a growing world.”


Click here for full article

A long-term evaluation of fungicides to manage the Black spot disease of papaya

Roshan Manandhar

University of Hawaiʻi at Mānoa, College of Tropical Agriculture and Human Resources


Black spot disease is caused by the fungus Asperisporium caricae and is a major foliar disease affecting papaya (Carica papaya) in Hawaii (Ogata and Heu, 2001). The initial symptoms of Black spot disease are small water-soaked spots which develop on the upper surface of leaves and later become greyish white in color. On the lower surface, symptoms include irregular brown to black spots measuring 2-6 mm in diameter on older papaya leaves. Affected leaves curl and become necrotic, brittle and subsequently die under sever disease pressure, which result in extensive defoliation.  A suite of best management practices includes proper site selection, reducing initial fungal inoculum and application of appropriate fungicides (Sugano et al., Link). However, the disease is not notable until growers observe the black spots on fruits, when any management methods applied is found to be not effective. Thus, a timely application of appropriate fungicides in a regular manner is needed to effectively suppress the Black spot disease of papaya


Click here for full article

Publications & Programs

for sustainable and organic production systems 

CTAHR Publications

Organic Corner

Understanding Organic


Hawai’i Organic Growers Must Apply for Organic Cost Share by Oct. 31, 2022

You may have noticed that the maximum reimbursement from the National Organic Cost Share program has dropped from $750 to $500 in the last few years. Well, in 2022 there are two Cost Share Programs, The National Organic Certification Cost Share Program (NOCCSP) and The Organic and Transitional Education and Certification Program (OTECP). Combining both programs will allow you to receive reimbursement of 75% of the cost of certification up to $750 and access reimbursement for other expenses.


The National Organic Certification Cost Share Program (NOCCSP) helps certified operators afford the expense of organic certification. In 2022, the program will refund up to 50 percent, or a maximum of $500, of certification costs per “scope” — crop, livestock, wild crop, and handling — for eligible organic operations. Producers can be reimbursed for expenses made between Oct. 1, 2021 and Sept. 30, 2022 including application fees, inspection costs, fees related to equivalency agreement and arrangement requirements, travel expenses for inspectors, user fees, sales assessments and postage. Recipients must be certified organic under the National Organic Program to receive cost share assistance. For instructions on how to ensure your application is complete, visit: http://go.hawaii.edu/Wj2


In 2022 there is an accompanying, but separate program that provides additional funding to cover certification expenses. The Organic and Transitional Education and Certification Program (OTECP) provides a reimbursement of 25% of the costs of certification up to $250 per scope. In combination with the Organic Certification Cost Share Program, certified operations can receive a reimbursement of 75% up to $750 per scope.  For more information on this program, visit: http://go.hawaii.edu/2jY

Don’t wait until the last minute! Offices are short staffed and application volume can be high. You can apply anytime after you have reached the maximum funding level.  Applications for both the Organic Certification Cost Share Program and Organic and Transitional Education and Certification Program are due October 31st to your local county Farm Service Agency office. You can find a Hawai’i FSA county office near you here: http://go.hawaii.edu/uMP

National Organic Standards Board Fall Meeting 2022

The National Organic Standards Board (NOSB) generally meets semi-annually in a public forum to discuss and vote on recommendations to the USDA National Organic Program. These recommendations help the Department of Agriculture develop and refine the organic standards. It is important to note that NOSB guidance is not binding and the Department does not always follow NOSB recommendations. The NOSB recommendation library is available here: http://go.hawaii.edu/2on


The NOSB will next meet in Sacramento, California 25-27 October 2022, 8:30a-5:00p. The in-person meeting will be webcast live for those who are not able to travel. The NOSB invites public comment, both written and oral, on its agenda topics. To be considered during the Fall 2022 Meeting, written comments must be received by 11:59 pm ET on Thursday, September 29, 2022. Oral comment registration will open in late August when the agenda and proposals are posted. Oral comment speaking slots may fill up quickly, so keep an eye on the NOSB Fall 2022 Meeting webpage here: http://go.hawaii.edu/Fo2


Resources From the National Organic Program (NOP)

        NOP Enforcement Activity – Look up recent enforcement actions, including Administrator Decisions and Settlement Agreements

        Organic Integrity Learning Center – Visit “Certification Administration Essentials – Lesson 6: Administrative Capacity and Certifier Transitions”

        Certifier Locator – For operations needing a new certifier, look up certifiers operating in different States and countries

For New Farmers

Molokai Native Hawaiian Beginning Farmers Quarterly – Summer 2022


Aina Ho’opulapula: The Hawaiian Homes Act Going Forward

by Glenn I. Teves

U.H. College of Tropical Agriculture and Human Resources, Cooperative Extension Service – Molokai


In this edition of the Molokai'i Native Hawaiian Beginner Farmers Quarterly the focus is on celebrating the 100th anniversary of the Hawaiian Homes Act. As we look back at the history of the Act and the obstacles that were endured. Click here to read more.

USDA Accepting Applications to Help Cover Costs of Organic, Transitioning Producers


Agricultural producers and handlers who are certified organic, along with producers and handlers who are transitioning to organic production, can now apply for the U.S. Department of Agriculture’s (USDA) Organic and Transitional Education and Certification Program (OTECP) and Organic Certification Cost Share Program (OCCSP), which help producers and handlers cover the cost of organic certification, along with other related expenses. Applications for OTECP and OCCSP are both due October 31, 2022. 

Community Wildfire Defense Grant


The Community Wildfire Defense Grant (CWDG) Program is offering funding to assist communities to prevent, plan, and mitigate for wildfire risks. Grants prioritize communities in areas identified as having high or very high wildfire hazard potential, are low-income, and/or have been impacted by a severe disaster. The grants are intended to help at-risk communities become better prepared and more resilient to wildfire risks. For more information on this funding opportunity please email Michael Walker at michael.j.walker@hawaii.gov 

Garden with the Master Gardener

Choosing a Fertilizers for Your Lawn

by Tom Timmons, Master Gardener Kaua'i


Wondering what fertilizers to use on your lawn?  This article was written by Tom Timmons, who is a Master Gardener on the island of Kaua'i.  This article will help you in your decision making about lawn care.  Mr. Timmons discusses the various types of fertilizers and what the fertilizers should do for your lawn.  He also touches on the role of the different macronutrients along with resources for further reading.


To read the full article, click here

FYI & Events

Banana Bunchy Top Virus Testing (BBTV) in Hilo, Hawaiʻi


Cooperative Extension received a grant for equipment to detect the presence of the Banana Bunchy Top Virus (BBTV) in samples of banana plants. The grant was approved by the County of Hawaii to lease a fluorometer to detect the presence of BBTV in samples of banana leaves, to support homeowners and commercial growers through this grant.


BBTV Sample Collection

BBTV Symptoms and Control Methods

Fall 2022 Weed Science Lab: Nutsedge management and Turn the Page Farming


Recently, Dr. Joe DeFrank from the University of Hawaiʻi at Mānoaʻs College of Tropical Agriculture and Human Resources, created a presentation for the PEPS/TPSS 481 Weed Science class. The lecture discussed the management of yellow and purple nutsedge and details of a no-till farming method for organic farmers.  The lecture covered the following topics:

  1. Biology of nutsedge management.
  2. Methods of nutsedge management.
  3. Tarping, a non-chemical means of weed control.
  4. Tarping for no-till organic crop production


Watch the full lecture here

Lecture slides here

Controlled Environment Agriculture: Help Meet Hawai'iʻs Food Security and Self-Sufficiency in Food Production.


On August 20, 2022, Dr. Kent Kobayashi, Associate Professor at the University of Mānoa, gave a virtual presentation about controlled environment agriculture (CEA) at the first ever in-person Laulima Symposium held at the KROC Center in Kapolei on the island of Oahu, HI.  https://www.honuascholars.org/laulima-symposium.  The annual Laulima Symposium allows local scientists, engineers, teachers, and researchers to network and learn about Hawaii's cool work in STEM. 


Dr. Kobayashiʻs presentation, entitled "Controlled Environment Agriculture: Help Meet Hawaii's Food Security and Self-Sufficiency in Food Production," explained what controlled environment agriculture is, examples of high technology CEA, and controlling the artificial and natural lighting environments to enhance crop production. Please watch the 3 minute presentation below.

2022 Hawai‘i Agriculture Conference

Presented by Agricultural Leadership Foundation of Hawai‘i


September 27–28

Join the AG2022 Conference to explore, learn and network with Hawa‘i’s agricultural leaders and affiliates. The State of Agriculture in Hawai‘i Today presentation on Day 1 will provide context that will enhance participation throughout the Conference. It will be followed by a thought-provoking keynote on Juggernauts to Expanding Hawai‘i Agriculture. Day 2 will begin with a look at The Future from FFA Students. Then choose among 24 breakout sessions within the tracks of Community Collaboration - It takes a village to succeed, A Vibrant Workforce - The socio-economic factor, and The Business of Agriculture - Creating economic viability & vitality. Learn more about the track sessions below.


Register online here

Hawaii Tropical Fruit Growers: 32nd Annual Hawaii Tropical Fruit Growers Conference 

Nov 04, 3:00 PM HST – Nov 06, 12:00 PM HST

Royal Kona Resort, 75-5852 Ali‘i Dr, Kailua-Kona, HI 96740, USA

Click here to register


HFUU Annual Convention 2022

Dec. 2-4 at Hawai'i Taro Farm in Waikapu

Click here to register


Western Region Sustainable Agriculture and Education Program (WSARE)

Western Region Sustainable Agriculture and Education Program (WSARE)


Fresh Growth Podcast

We talk with Tangy and Matt Bates who operate Blue Creek Livestock in Delta Junction Alaska in Episode 6. Since the beginning, Blue Creek Cattle has been building soils and herds. Tangy and Matt talk about the opportunities and challenges of farming in Alaska. Cover crops and building their own butcher shop are only two of many topics discussed in this episode.


Listen to Podcast




The Western SARE Farmer/Rancher Research & Education Grant Program focuses on advancing on-farm sustainability solutions by funding innovative producer-driven research and outreach. This grant program involves agricultural producers (main applicants) and technical advisor(s) implementing projects to address identified needs in sustainable agriculture.


Closes Nov 2, 2022

For full application


Professional + Producer

This grant program involves agricultural technical advisor (main applicant) and producers implementing projects to address identified needs in sustainable agriculture. With the collaboration of at least three producers, projects must integrate research and education aiming to advance the three components of sustainable agriculture- environmental, economic, and social- and use innovative educational outreach to disseminate new knowledge to producers and other agricultural stakeholders. It is expected that outcomes of funded projects will result in quantifiable benefits for producers, increase the preservation of the natural and social resources upon which agriculture relies, and be shared with other producers. $75,000 limit/one-three years in scope.


Closes Nov 3, 2022

Full Proposal


Grant Writing Webinars

Western SARE offers grant writing webinars for those interested in applying for Farmer/Rancher grant, Professional + Producer grant, Professional Development grant, Graduate Student grant, Sabbatical Research and Education grant, and/or Research to Grassroots grant.

The following topics are addressed:

  • What is Western SARE?
  • The sections of the proposal: their meaning and expectations
  • The on-line platform submission system
  • How to write a Western SARE budget
  • The proposal review process


View the fall issue of Simply Sustainable with articles on Montana producers testing cover crops, managing Iron deficiency in dry beans, project visits by Western SARE, and ag in Alaska.


Since 1988, the WSARE program has been supporting agricultural profitability, environmental integrity and community strength through grants that enable cutting-edge research and education to open windows on sustainability across the West, including Hawai'i. The goals of WSARE are:


  • Promote good stewardship of our natural resources.
  • Enhance the quality of life of farmers and ranchers and ensure the viability of rural communities.
  • Protect the health and safety of those involved in food and farm systems.
  • Promote crop, livestock and enterprise diversification.
  • Examine the regional, economic, social and environmental implications of adopting sustainable agriculture practices and systems.


For more information, please see: http://www.westernsare.org/ or contact Hawai'i WSARE co-coordinators Jensen Uyeda (juyeda@hawaii.edu) and Sharon Wages (smotomur@hawaii.edu). 

This e-publication has been prepared by CTAHR research scientists and extension staff to deliver science-based information about sustainable and organic production systems to serve Hawaiʻi's farming community.


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Mahalo nui loa,


Eric Collier Education Specialist and Managing Editor

Amjad Ahmad, Kylie Tavares & Emilie Kirk Co-Reviewers

Sharon Wages Jensen Uyeda WSARE Content Reviewers

Jari Sugano & Giselle Bryant Editors Emeritus and Reviewers

Ted Radovich Editor-in-Chief


Sustainable and Organic Agriculture Program

Cooperative Extension Service

College of Tropical Agriculture and Human Resources


On-line version of newsletter as well as archived issues available at:  



Hawai‘i Cooperative Extension is an equal opportunity/affirmative action institution providing programs and services to the people of Hawai‘i without regard to race, sex, gender identity and expression, age, religion, color, national origin, ancestry, disability, marital status, arrest and court record, sexual orientation, or status as a covered veteran.


Eric Collier | Web Manager | colliere@hawaii.edu

Copyright ©2013 University of Hawai‘i - College of Tropical Agriculture and Human Resources. Updated 4 Nov, 2021

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CTAHR Sustainable and Organic Program

at the University of Hawai'i at Manoa


Dr. Theodore Radovich


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