Volume 46 April | May | June 2022

  • 30 September 2022
  • Author: Soap Web Master
  • Number of views: 508

Providing science-based information to serve Hawaiʻi's Farming Community


The Food Provider

April | May | June 2022

Aloha Kākou


This exciting June 2022 issue of HānaiʻAi presents a good deal of information that you should find very helpful. We present a new ʻUlu Agroforestry Guide, and introduce an adapted ʻUlu propagation method for the ʻulu producer or those thinking about growing ʻulu. Please see the papaya seed repurposing for biofumigation use, detection of CBB, The Mango Loa Project, Sunflower days to maturity and programs at Oʻahuʻs Urban Garden Center.  


Make sure to visit the "back pages" of the newsletter as well, which feature Upcoming Workshops, Conferences and Meetings, and the Organic Corner for the latest news on organic production.


Stay up to date with our weekly SOAP activities via our instagram, facebook and twitter feeds, links are below.


We would also like to thank all of you who have participated in completing the survey. We will be sharing the results of the survey in the next issue.  


As always, the mission of HānaiʻAi is to provide a venue for dissemination of science-based information to serve all of Hawaiʻi's farming community in our quest for agricultural sustainability, and we would like to hear from you!



On-line version of newsletter as well as archived issues available at:  



Click Here to View as Webpage

Feature Farmer: Yokoyama Farm- Allan and Cora Yokoyama

How long have you been farming? 

We are a small farm. We currently have 3.5 acres in production. We had been farming on Kauai for 7 years before moving to the Big Island.


How many years has your current operation been in production?

We have been farming in Waimea for 10 years.


What crops do you grow? Animals do you raise? Any other goods and services you provide (i.e. value added)?

Artichokes, beets, blueberries, broccolini, cabbage, cauliflower, daikon, potatoes, sweet onions, and taro leaf.


Read the full article here.

Hot Tips from Yokoyama Farm

Never give up! There will be hard times as well as good ones, your produce will reflect your hard work and be your reward. 


Mahalo nui loa to Yokoyama Farm, and Kylie Tavares for this interview and photos.

Read More
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Sustainable & Organic Research &

Outreach News

News from Hawaiʻi's Researchers and Extension Professionals

Use of Rooting Hormone to Enhance Cutting Propagation of Breadfruit

Jensen Uyeda, Theodore Radovich, Lauren Baligad, and Eric Collier

Department of Tropical Plant and Soil Sciences

College of Tropical Agriculture and Human Resources, University of Hawaiʻi at Manoa


‘Ulu or Breadfruit (Artocarpus altilis), a staple crop throughout the pacific, has the potential to increase food security in many tropical regions. In Hawaiʻi many new orchards are being established but access to planting material can be limited. Traditionally, Breadfruit is propagated by root shoots, which were initiated by injuring roots of mature trees and can take up to five months to develop a mature plant ready for transplant. Other techniques include air layering and shoot cuttings. Cutting propagation has shown to be a promising technique to establish many plants in a short period of time. Little has been documented on the impact variety and auxin have on the efficiency of root establishment in cuttings. The objective of this study was to determine how well breadfruit shoot cuttings from two different varieties established with and without auxin.


Read full Article

FMI: Jensen Uyeda



Edible, Oil Production, Livestock Feed, and as Ornamental Crop

Amjad Ahmad, Christine Hanakawa, Tina Lau, and Jari Sugano

College of Tropical Agriculture and Human Resources

University of Hawaiʻi at Mānoa


Sunflowers (Helianthus annuus) are an annual crop that is very popular worldwide. Sunflowers are usually harvested for seeds, oil, livestock feed, and used as ornamental plants. It is the 5th leading oilseed crop in the world and accounts for 8% of oilseed production worldwide (FAO, 2011) with 32.3 million tons produced in the 2010/2011 growing season (Oil World, 2011).  A field trial was initiated at the Urban Garden Center in Pearl City, Oahu to determine the days to maturity (DTM) in several popular sunflower varieties during Spring 2022.


Read Full Article

FMI: Amjad Ahmad

 Repurposing Papaya 

Examining the Potential of Instant Biofumigation Using Papaya 

Seed Waste for Soil-borne Disease Management on Leafy Greens 

Lauren Braley, Koon-Hui Wang, Joshua Silva, Tao Yan, Stuart Nakamoto, and Wei Wen Su

College of Tropical Agriculture and Human Resources, University of Hawaiʻi at Manoa

Leafy greens such as lettuce and mustard cabbage have a combined farm gate value of $6.4 million. Unfortunately, many crops including mustard cabbage are prone to a number of soil-born fungal diseases and nematodes parasitism. Currently there are no known cultivars that are resistant to the various fungal diseases. Allowing fields to rest may not be an economical solution, because fungi can survive in the soil without a host for many years. There are several synthetic fumigants that can be implemented, however, their use may be restricted, and requires producers to possess a certified applicators license. Researchers at the College of Tropical Agriculture and Human Resources studied the effectiveness of a natural alternative called isothiocyanate, which is primarily produced among members of the Capparaceae (caper family), Moringaceae (horseradish tree family), Brassicaceae (cabbage family), Caricaceae (belonging to the papaya family) and Euphorbiaceae (belonging to the cassava and castor families). Researchers investigated the biofumigation potential to mitigate fungal disease and nematode infection on lettuce or kai choi.


Read full article

FMI: Lauren Braley


Increasing Youth Engagement with Flowers

Christine Hanakawa, Amjad Ahmad, Tina Lau, and Jari Sugano

College of Tropical Agriculture and Human Resources 

University of Hawaiʻi at Mānoa 

Integrated into the 4-Hʻs educational programs, the Urban Garden Center (UGC) hosted students from Pearl City High School and the National Guardʻs Youth Challenge Program to create flower arrangements, and learn to identify flowers. Students also learned about the impact of flowers, pollinators, as well as agricultural pests such as wasps. The program had an influential impact on the students. Read the full article to learn more about the program.


Read full article

FMI: Jari Sugano

The Mango Loa Project: A Comparison of Two High Density Orchard Management Systems for Mangoes

Umi Martin, Umi’s Farm; Hawaiʻi Tropical Fruit Growers Association

Emilie Kirk College of Tropical Agriculture and Human Resources University of Hawaiʻi Kauai


Funded through Western SARE, the Mango Loa Project originated with the goal of improving the production of mangoes in Hawaiʻi by introducing two new innovative orchard management practices that have been producing great results for tropical fruits around the world: the ultra high density plantation (UHDP) and the open Tatura trellis system. The ultra high density plantation (UHDP) technique has been trialed many places around the world including Israel, South Africa, and India, but it’s hard to pinpoint where or when it originated. This method uses a spacing of 6’ x 9’ to 10’ x 20’ with a density anywhere from 200 trees to 670 trees/acre. 


Read full article

FMI: Umi Martin

Survey of Coffee berry borer for early detection and to minimize its spread at Moloaʻa Bay Coffee Farm 

Roshan Manandhar, Raymond Kahaunaele, and Craig Kaneshige

UH CTAHR Cooperative Extension Service, College of Tropical Agriculture and HumanResources, Kauaʻi Invasive Species Committee, Hawaiʻi Department of Agriculture


Coffee berry borer, CBB (Hypothenemus hampei) is the most significant pest of coffee worldwide. The adult females bore into the berries through the blossom end and make galleries in the cotyledons, where they deposit eggs. The hatched larvae then feed in the cotyledons causing severe damage that may be followed by secondary fungal and bacterial infections. Since its detection in Hawaiʻi (September 2010), coffee growers are facing financial losses due to reduced quality and lower yield. The spread of CBB in a new region is mainly through the transportation of infested coffee seeds. Because of its tiny size (< 2 mm), this pest becomes highly invasive once they are introduced in a new area (CABI). Researchers with the Rapid Response Team conducted surveys, inspecting trees for the CBB identifying more efficient methods to stop the spread of CBB.


Read full article

FMI: Roshan Manandhar

The Importance of Pollinator-Friendly Habitat Using Native Hawaiʻian Plants

Rosemary Gutierrez-Coarite and Kylie Tavares

College of Tropical Agriculture & Human Resources

University of Hawaiʻi at Manoa


Maintaining resource rich pollinator habitat within agricultural landscapes may lead to enhanced crop yield. There have been several studies that support the importance of floral resources for enhancing pollinator abundance, however, projects have used exotic species. Researchers at the University of Hawaiʻi asked, why not use native Hawaiʻian plants to enhance pollinator habitat? They provide several reasons including saving water resources and give a list of native plants that flower year-round, excellent candidates as sources of pollen and nectar for pollinators and other beneficial insects.


Read full article

FMI: Rosemary Gutierrez-Coarite

Publications & Programs

for sustainable and organic production systems 

CTAHR Publications

Organic Corner

Understanding Organic

Add-on Certification for “Regenerative” Organic Production

USDA Organic Certification is an assurance to consumers, retailers and brokers of organic produce that the produce marketed as “certified organic” has been grown under standards set by the National Organic Program. However, those standards are considered inadequate by some proponents of organic agriculture. Regenerative Organic Certified (ROC) builds on USDA organic certification, and only products that are certified under the USDA organic program are eligible to apply for ROC. Continuous improvement of soil organic matter and soil health over time are primary goals of the Regenerative approach and address perceived deficiencies in USDA certification. The concept of continuous improvement is built into the ROC standard by increasing the requirements and awarding the progressive certification levels of Bronze, Silver, and Gold. In terms of crop farming, examples of mandatory ROC practices include:


  •  Minimal soil disturbance. The goal is to minimize soil disturbance as much as possible to maintain soil biology and structure, retain water, and prevent erosion and carbon loss.
  • Vegetative Cover. Operations are required to cover a minimum percentage of cultivated land with living vegetative cover, mulch, or crop residues when field work is not underway. For example, at the Bronze level, the requirement is 25-50 percent coverage.
  • Minimum Crop Rotation. Diverse and nitrogen-fixing cover crops drawdown carbon, return nutrients to the soil, control pests, prevent erosion, and decrease weeds. At a minimum, ROC requires a minimum of three crops rotated through the same area.
  • Regenerative Practices. Operations engage in additional regenerative practices depending on the certification level. Some examples include adding pollinator habitat, herbaceous field borders, agroforestry, and riparian restoration.
  •  Soil testing. ROC requires both lab tests (every three years) and in-field tests (every year). Certification decisions are not based on soil testing results. The intention is to provide valuable qualitative and quantitative information on soil properties that influence and are influenced by ag practices.

The full ROC criteria can be viewed at http://go.hawaii.edu/xEA


2022 National Organic Program Update

The National Organic Program (NOP) provides a program update at each National Organic Standards Board (NOSB) meeting. The NOP team developed this presentation, recorded in April 2022, for the Spring 2022 NOSB meeting. To view a recorded version of the presentation, go to: http://go.hawaii.edu/xEf

                                        For New Farmers

Oʻahu Agriculture Grants


Using funding from American Rescue Plan Act’s State and Local Fiscal Recovery Funds, the City and County of Honolulu is developing a new $3 million agricultural grant program for farmers, ranchers, and growers on Oʻahu.


Originally proposed by Council Vice-Chair Esther Kiaʻāina as part of a broader effort to deploy federal funds to support local agriculture producers, the first phase of this program will award $1 million each year in 2022, 2023, and 2024.

Each grant will be $50,000.


  • Agriculture producer receives 80% of funds on award , 20% on completion of grant.
  • One year to use the funds from award date.
  • Total of 20 grants awarded this year.
  • Who’s eligible: agricultural producers based on Oʻahu, in business by March 1, 2020, and fully compliant with IRS, DLIR, DCCA, DOTAX.
  • We expect to post applications online in early June.


For more information click here

USDA Accepting Applications to Help Cover Costs of Organic, Transitioning Producers


Agricultural producers and handlers who are certified organic, along with producers and handlers who are transitioning to organic production, can now apply for the U.S. Department of Agriculture’s (USDA) Organic and Transitional Education and Certification Program (OTECP) and Organic Certification Cost Share Program (OCCSP), which help producers and handlers cover the cost of organic certification, along with other related expenses. Applications for OTECP and OCCSP are both due October 31, 2022. 

FYI & Events

ʻUlu Agroforestry in Hawaiʻi


Hawaiʻi ʻUlu Cooperative and partners have developed a guide to implementing sustainable, achievable, and effective agroforestry methods for Hawaiʻi farmers. Benefits of ʻulu agroforestry can include increased soil health and production and decreased reliance on outside inputs such as fertilizer and pesticides.


This guide defines the five agroforestry practices recognized by the USDA as well as helpful allied terms and strategies, and presents real-world examples of how each practice is currently utilized by ʻulu farmers in Hawaiʻi through a series of local case studies. 


ʻUlu Agroforestry in Hawaiʻi Guide

Hoʻopili ʻAi Campaign – Uniting Keiki & Hawaiʻi Food Crops


Farm to school connects kids with their food and with the ‘āina, that which feeds and nourishes us all – fostering the next generation of healthy, caring stewards.  The new Hoʻopili ʻAi Campaign – Uniting Keiki & Hawaiʻi Food Crops is a partnership with the Hawaiʻi Farm to School Hui that provides students, teachers, school staff and parents with the resources needed to build lifelong relationships between youth and Hawaiʻi-grown staple foods!


Visit their website

Hawaiʻi Macadamia Nut Association Annual Meeting and Conference


Saturday, July 9 • 9 a.m.

Hilton Waikoloa Village, 69-425 Waikoloa Beach Dr, Waikoloa, Hawai‘i Island (map)

Producers and community members are invited to attend the 54th annual meeting of the Hawaiʻi Macadamia Nut Association. Presentations will cover integrated pest management, plant disease, management of older orchards, drone and aerial imagery, and other macadamia nut farming topics. The cost to attend is $50 for non-members. Registration fee includes an annual membership.


Register online here

2022 Hawai‘i Agriculture Conference

Presented by Agricultural Leadership Foundation of Hawai‘i


September 27–28

Join the AG2022 Conference to explore, learn and network with Hawa‘i’s agricultural leaders and affiliates. The State of Agriculture in Hawai‘i Today presentation on Day 1 will provide context that will enhance participation throughout the Conference. It will be followed by a thought-provoking keynote on Juggernauts to Expanding Hawai‘i Agriculture. Day 2 will begin with a look at The Future from FFA Students. Then choose among 24 breakout sessions within the tracks of Community Collaboration - It takes a village to succeed, A Vibrant Workforce - The socio-economic factor, and The Business of Agriculture - Creating economic viability & vitality. Learn more about the track sessions below.


Register online here


Healthy Soil, Healthy Orchard: from Planning to Practices


Join Oahu RC&D, CTAHR, and host farm Island Harvest for a field day on Saturday, July 16th from 9:00am to 12:00pm in Kapa'au, Hawaiʻi to engage with soil health planning in orchard systems. This on-farm workshop will share cover crop trials in an orchard system, followed by a demonstration of an AerWay Orchard Aerator and cover crop seeder. Dr. Koon-Hui Wang will share updates on her cover cropping research for orchard systems and we will discuss soil health planning, practices, and testing, as well as the opportunity for funding from NRCS programs for practice implementation. Lunch will be provided.


Click here to register

CTAHR’s Food Systems Working Group


"CTAHR’s Food Systems Working Group held a virtual forum in mid-April to discuss how we can tackle food sustainability from a holistic perspective. Six speakers from CTAHR briefly explained their current projects on food sustainability, followed by a moderated discussion to identify opportunities to work toward food sustainability on our UH campuses. Speakers included Noa Lincoln (on food systems network analysis), Marielle Hampton (on Citizen Science for Seeds), Janel Yamamoto (on ag producer training), Emilie Kirk (on language access among food producers), Andre Seale (on aquaculture training), and Ilima Ho-Lastimosa (on aquaponics in school and back yards). Associate Dean of Extension, Jeff Goodwin, reminded us during his opening remark, "We get so focused on one thing; we don't take the time to think about all these other related topics circling around that [beach ball example]. And so as my challenge to this group, don't get boxed into one or two perspectives-- I call it perspective broadening. And I think that's what we do in extension a lot is perspective broadening out there in our educational program. So I would encourage you to keep trying to broaden that perspective." 


The second forum in the Fall will be held on Thursday, September 15th from 12:00-1:30 pm. 


The video of the forum can be viewed via YouTube (https://youtu.be/GLRR3J5fzCc)

Western Region Sustainable Agriculture and Education Program (WSARE)

Western Region Sustainable Agriculture and Education Program (WSARE)


Fresh Growth Podcast

We talk with Tangy and Matt Bates who operate Blue Creek Livestock in Delta Junction Alaska in Episode 6. Since the beginning, Blue Creek Cattle has been building soils and herds. Tangy and Matt talk about the opportunities and challenges of farming in Alaska. Cover crops and building their own butcher shop are only two of many topics discussed in this episode.


Listen to Podcast




The Western SARE Farmer/Rancher Research & Education Grant Program focuses on advancing on-farm sustainability solutions by funding innovative producer-driven research and outreach. This grant program involves agricultural producers (main applicants) and technical advisor(s) implementing projects to address identified needs in sustainable agriculture.


Closes Nov 2, 2022

For full application


Professional + Producer

This grant program involves agricultural technical advisor (main applicant) and producers implementing projects to address identified needs in sustainable agriculture. With the collaboration of at least three producers, projects must integrate research and education aiming to advance the three components of sustainable agriculture- environmental, economic, and social- and use innovative educational outreach to disseminate new knowledge to producers and other agricultural stakeholders. It is expected that outcomes of funded projects will result in quantifiable benefits for producers, increase the preservation of the natural and social resources upon which agriculture relies, and be shared with other producers. $75,000 limit/one-three years in scope.


Closes Nov 3, 2022

Full Proposal


Grant Writing Webinars

Western SARE offers grant writing webinars for those interested in applying for Farmer/Rancher grant, Professional + Producer grant, Professional Development grant, Graduate Student grant, Sabbatical Research and Education grant, and/or Research to Grassroots grant.

The following topics are addressed:

  • What is Western SARE?
  • The sections of the proposal: their meaning and expectations
  • The on-line platform submission system
  • How to write a Western SARE budget
  • The proposal review process


View the fall issue of Simply Sustainable with articles on Montana producers testing cover crops, managing Iron deficiency in dry beans, project visits by Western SARE, and ag in Alaska.


Since 1988, the WSARE program has been supporting agricultural profitability, environmental integrity and community strength through grants that enable cutting-edge research and education to open windows on sustainability across the West, including Hawai'i. The goals of WSARE are:


  • Promote good stewardship of our natural resources.
  • Enhance the quality of life of farmers and ranchers and ensure the viability of rural communities.
  • Protect the health and safety of those involved in food and farm systems.
  • Promote crop, livestock and enterprise diversification.
  • Examine the regional, economic, social and environmental implications of adopting sustainable agriculture practices and systems.


For more information, please see: http://www.westernsare.org/ or contact Hawai'i WSARE co-coordinators Jensen Uyeda (juyeda@hawaii.edu) and Sharon Wages (smotomur@hawaii.edu). 

This e-publication has been prepared by CTAHR research scientists and extension staff to deliver science-based information about sustainable and organic production systems to serve Hawaiʻi's farming community.


  • To continue receiving this newsletter, please confirm your interest by subscribing or updating your profile/email address.
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  • Send in your suggestions for what you want to read about in our articles
  • Tell us about your research needs.


Mahalo nui loa,


Eric Collier Education Specialist and Managing Editor

Amjad Ahmad, Kylie Tavares & Emilie Kirk Co-Reviewers

Sharon Wages Jensen Uyeda WSARE Content Reviewers

Jari Sugano & Giselle Bryant Editors Emeritus and Reviewers

Ted Radovich Editor-in-Chief


Sustainable and Organic Agriculture Program

Cooperative Extension Service

College of Tropical Agriculture and Human Resources


On-line version of newsletter as well as archived issues available at:  



Hawai‘i Cooperative Extension is an equal opportunity/affirmative action institution providing programs and services to the people of Hawai‘i without regard to race, sex, gender identity and expression, age, religion, color, national origin, ancestry, disability, marital status, arrest and court record, sexual orientation, or status as a covered veteran.


Eric Collier | Web Manager | colliere@hawaii.edu

Copyright ©2013 University of Hawai‘i - College of Tropical Agriculture and Human Resources. Updated 4 Nov, 2021

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CTAHR Sustainable and Organic Program

at the University of Hawai'i at Manoa


Dr. Theodore Radovich


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