Volume 37: Jan | Feb | Mar 2020

Providing science-based information to serve Hawaii's Farming Community
The Food Provider
| Jan | Feb | March 2020| 
Sustainable and Organic Program Logo
 Welcome to the first 2020 issue of Hānai'Ai, the sustainable agriculture newsletter of the College of Tropical Agriculture and Human Resources (CTAHR) at the University of Hawai'i. This edition features several great resources.  You'll find articles discussing Won Bok and Manoa lettuce variety trials, an update on biofumigation research to control soil pests and disease, and growing healthy seedlings for production.  Get updates on what has happened in the organic world, resources to help prepare you in the midst of COVID-19, and read our feature farmer article, an insight into Kualoa Ranch and their diversified Ag operation.  Please visit the SOAP website,  click here; and social media pages for weekly updates about everything sustainable and organic in agriculture.  Mahalo to the Hawai'i Department of Agriculture for their continuing support of the website, Hānai'Ai, and other SOAP activities to serve Hawaii's growers.
We hope you find this issue of HānaiʻAi useful, and welcome your input.
Sustainable & Organic Research &  Outreach News
News from Hawaii's Researchers & Extension Professionals
An Update on Biofumigation Research in Hawaii: The equipment matters!
Waisen, P., R. Paudel, and K.-H. Wang
University of Hawaii at Mānoa, College of Tropical Agriculture and Human Resources
As organic farmers search for natural compounds to battle soil-borne diseases, brown mustard might offer a solution. Brown mustard contains glucosinolates, when the tissue is damaged, glucosinalates are transformed into allyl isothiocyanates, which are known to be anti-fungal and anti-helminthic.  Previously our team at the College of Tropical Agriculture and Human Resources reported that biofumigation with brown mustard alone, with the use of a flail mower to macerate plant tissue followed by tilling and subsequent covering the soil with clear plastic (solarization mulch) or black plastic suppressed root-knot and reniform more effectively than mixed plantings of brown mustard and oil radish.  In this study, two field trials were conducted to look at the use of brown mustard as a biofumigant crop by harvesting leaves and macerating with a chipper. The macerated materials was then incorporated into the soil and examined for its efficacy in suppressing root-knot and reniform nematodes.  To learn more please read the full article here
FMI: Koon-Hui Wang
Email:  koonhui@hawaii.edu 
Improve Seedling Quality With Locally Made Liquid Nutrient Solution  
Amjad A. Ahmad, Tiare Silvasy, Sarah Moore, Chandrappa Gangaiah, Hue V. Nguyen, Jensen Uyeda, and Theodore J.K. Radovich
University of Hawaii at Mānoa, College of Tropical Agriculture and Human Resources
  It is common practice for Hawai'i producers to produce seedings in celled trays to later transplant into the field. There are several benefits to producing seedlings for transplant.  Benefits include improved establishment of crop, uniform growth, reduction of plant loss by pests and diseases, early harvest, and faster crop turnover.  Producing healthy transplants are first established by having quality seed genetics or a quality seed source.  The other aspect to healthy transplants is the physical quality of the seedlings during the time of transplant.  The quality of transplants can easily be accomplished by having quality media and nutrition.  However, the need for affordable fertilizers from local sources is important for producer's success and profitability.  Researchers at the College of Tropical Agriculture and Human Services have conducted a study to evaluate the effects of liquid organic fertilizer on seedling quality and compared it to synthetic and water only under peat moss media. Click here to see the results. 
FMI: Amjad Ahmad
Tipburn-Tolerant Butterhead Lettuce Substitutes for 'UH Mānoa' Lettuce: On-Farm Field Trial, September 2019
Joshua Silva 
University of Hawaii at Mānoa College of Tropical Agriculture and Human Resources
Manoa lettuce, with its crisp texture and delightful taste, is an island favorite among both producers and home growers.  Initially promoted as heat tolerant, many growers have experienced tipburn damage, up to 70% during the hot summer months.  Various efforts to reduce tipburn damage have not been successful.  There have been studies done in a hydroponic setting, however, the data was limited.  Researchers at the University of Hawaii at Manoa's College of Tropical Agriculture and Human Resources took four lettuce varieties to Wai'anae for an on farm field trial.  The varieties were selected for their resistance or tolerance to tipburn and had physical characteristics similar to those of Manoa lettuce.  The study assessed total marketable weight, head diameter, and tipburn damage.  Click here to see the results  
FMI: Joshua Silva    

Evaluation of Chinese Cabbage (Won Bok) Varieties for Commercial Production in Hawaii
J. Uyeda, L. Tamamoto, J. Sugano, J. Silva1, A. Ahmad, and K. Tavares 
University of Hawaii at Manoa, College of Tropical Agriculture and Human Resources
Chinese cabbage also known as Won Bok or Napa cabbage is a staple in Asian cuisine. According to USDA NASS, Chinese cabbage was the 2nd largest crop by volume produced in Hawaii after Head cabbage. Although Chinese cabbage production has seen declines, it's reported valued has increased by nearly $3 million.  Chinese cabbage typically grows well in cool climates or during cool seasons. When exposed to high temperatures, Chinese cabbage has a tendency to be loose and form poor quality heads. Many producers that grow Chinese cabbage in Hawaii are located in cooler climates such as Kula, Kamuela, and Central Oahu.  Due to industry requests to identify Chinese cabbage varieties that could be harvested earlier and could be used for kimchi (fermented cabbage) processing operation on Oahu, observational field trials were conducted at the University of Hawaii's Poamoho Research Station on Oahu.  27 varieties of Chinese cabbage were selected for field evaluation.  As a result researchers show promising early and late Won Bok varieties for producers to consider for their operation. Click here  to read full article.
FMI: Jensen Y Uyeda 
Email:  juyeda@hawaii.edu   
COVID-19 Farm Food Safety Reminders
Farm Food Safety Program
University of Hawaii at Manoa, College of Tropical Agriculture and Human Resources
The CTAHR Farm Food Safety Team understands that this is a particularly stressful time for farmers as there is uncertainty in the foreseeable future with produce outlets, markets, customers, and sales. While there is no evidence of links between food and COVID-19 at this time, we would like to remind you of a few practical farm food safety strategies to continue implementing to protect yourself and employees and minimize the risk of contamination. Please read the full article here.
Beginning Farmers
Helpful articles for those getting started
FSA's Beginning Farmers and Ranchers Loans 
During this uncertain time the next generation of farmers and ranchers can find additional support through FSA's "Beginning Farmer" direct and guaranteed loan programs. In addition, Farm Ownership loans can provide access to land and capital. Operating loans assist beginning farmers by helping to them pay normal operating or family living expenses; open doors to new markets and marketing opportunities; assist with diversifying operations; and much more. Through the Microloan programs, beginning farmers and ranchers have an important source of financial assistance during the start-up years.  Click the link to learn about these programs in Hawaii.
No Farms, No Food
American Farmland Trust: Farmer Relief Fund
American Farmland Trust's (AFT) Farmer Relief Fund will award farmers with cash grants of up to $1,000 each to help them weather the current storm of market disruptions caused by the coronavirus crisis.  Initially, eligible applicants include any small and mid-size direct-market producers. These are defined as producers with annual gross revenue of between $10,000 and $1 million from sales at farmers markets and/or direct sales to restaurants, caterers, schools, stores, or makers who use farm products as inputs.
The Hawaii Seed Growers Network
Jay Bost, GoFarm Hawaii
Daniela Dutra Elliot, Leeward, Community College
Melanie Willich,  Kohala Center
   The Hawai'i Seed Growers Network is a statewide group of artisanal farmers that have worked together for the past 5 years to grow, develop, and bring high quality, locally grown and adapted seed to Hawaii's gardeners and market farmers. They choose to grow their seed crops on a small scale in order to maintain close connections with their seed.  They carefully observe, select, and harvest from only the best plants to ensure your gardening success. Each year they will add varieties to their online seed store. All of their seeds have been properly dried, tested for germination, and stored to ensure viability.  Website --   Click here!
FMI: Jay Bost,
Organic Update
Enforcement of Organic Standards Maintains the Integrity of Organic Certification National Organic Program (NOP) officials announced in January 2020 that they are hiring new enforcement positions and significant new enforcement regulations are coming this year. The NOP also announced they are changing the way they provide quarterly updates on enforcement, including graphic representation of fraudulent certificates, settlement summaries, administrator decisions, administrative law judge decisions and judicial officer decisions (figure 1.). Certification is an assurance to consumers, retailers and brokers of organic produce that the produce marketed as "certified organic" has been grown under standards set by the National Organic Program. The USDA posts individual enforcement actions to the Organic Enforcement web page,  http://go.hawaii.edu/SFA

The U.S. Department of Agriculture's National Organic Standards Board's spring meeting will be an online-only event because of the COVID-19 crisis. The U.S. Department of Agriculture's National Organic Standards Board's spring meeting will be an online-only event because of the COVID-19 crisis.
The live online meeting will be April 29-30. The NOSB's spring meeting webpage will have updates on the times and other information. The NOSB will have web seminars for public comments on April 21 and April 23. Comments and sign-up instructions are online and there will be added time slots if needed. The deadline to register for the public comments is midnight April 3. The meeting agenda is available at the USDA's Agricultural Marketing Service website here: http://go.hawaii.edu/RiA
Western Region Sustainable Agriculture and Research Education Program (WSARE)
What is SARE
 Western SARE is a USDA- NIFA funded project to support research and education on sustainable agriculture.  Their mission is to advance agriculture innovations that improve profitability, stewardship, and quality of life by investing in groundbreaking research and education.  They meet mission by providing competitive grants programs, meaning as a farmer and/or rancher you can apply for a grant to research and test your innovative and sustainable ideas.  If this sounds interesting to you, please take some time to familiarize yourself with SARE.  Click Here for a comprehensive powerpoint about SARE and what they do.
Western SARE Newsletter (Winter 2019) 
  Simply Sustainable is the Western SARE Newsletter semi-annual publication.  This issue shares the story of a Colorado multi-generational farm, their gradual increase of cover crop mix and companion planting with their cash crop.  Overtime they saw increased soil health, biodiversity and profitability.  This issue also shares how to access SARE's free publications on cover crops; SARE's research funding; soil health webinars and more.  Please click here to read the entire newsletter  
Fresh Growth Podcast 
Fresh Growth: Approaches to a More Sustainable Future from Western Ag Practitioners introduces you to farmers and ranchers from around the western United States who are finding innovative sustainable practices that enrich the natural resources we all care about. These successful multi-generational operations experiment with new ideas and are making it pay. Listen in as they tell their story and provide advice for young or beginning farmers.
To listen to the Fresh Growth Podcast,
WSARE logo
Since 1988, the WSARE program has been supporting agricultural profitability, environmental integrity and community strength through grants that enable cutting-edge research and education to open windows on sustainability across the West, including Hawai'i. The goals of WSARE are:
  • Promote good stewardship of our natural resources.
  • Enhance the quality of life of farmers and ranchers and ensure the viability of rural communities.
  • Protect the health and safety of those involved in food and farm systems.
  • Promote crop, livestock and enterprise diversification.
  • Examine the regional, economic, social and environmental implications of adopting sustainable agriculture practices and systems.
For more information, please see: http://www.westernsare.org  or contact Hawai'i WSARE co-coordinators 
Sharon Motomura-Wages and Jensen Uyeda 
This e-publication has been prepared by CTAHR research scientists and extension staff to deliver science-based information about sustainable and organic production systems to serve Hawaii's farming community.
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Mahalo nui loa,
Eric Collier  Education Specialist and Editor
Sustainable and Organic Agriculture Program 
Cooperative Extension Service 
College of Tropical Agriculture and Human Resources
University of Hawaii at Manoa
On-line version of newsletter as well as archived issues available at:  
The intent of these columns is to improve understanding in those unfamiliar with organic production, and to provide a resource to growers interested in or are currently producing organically.  
Let us know what you want to see featured in Hānai  ʻAi by emailing:
In This Issue
Research & Outreach News
Article Headline
Organic Update
Featured Farmer
Featured Farmer
Kualoa Ranch

Taylor Kellerman   
Area under production : 
~1,655 acres
Years farming in Hawai'i: 
since 1850
Crops grown,
animals raised, goods & services:
Shrimp, tilapia, oysters, beef, pork, lamb, eggs, papaya, cacao, leafy greens, and more. 
Fertility Management:
mulch, Sustain, bone meal
Mahalo nui loa 
Taylor Kellerman
Taylor Kellerman
"Put everything you do through an economically minded filter first. "
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