Volume 35: Aug | Sept | Oct 2019

Providing science-based information to serve Hawaii's Farming Community
The Food Provider
| Fall 2019 | 
Sustainable and Organic Program Logo
 Welcome to the Fall 2019 issue of Hānai'Ai, the Sustainable Agriculture Newsletter of the College of Tropical Agriculture and Human Resources (CTAHR) at the University of Hawai'i.
In this edition we are pleased to share some of the projects our CTAHR team and agriculture community have been working on to expand, promote, and improve local agriculture in Hawaii. Read about the application rates of biochar, disease management of banana production, cucumber and onion variety trials, FSMA inspections, upcoming events and more. We are here to help you with your farming needs! To visit the SOAP website, click here. Mahalo to the Hawai'i Department of Agriculture for their continuing support of the website, Hānai'Ai, and other SOAP activities to serve Hawaii's growers.
We hope you find this issue of HānaiʻAi useful, and welcome your input.
Sustainable & Organic Research &  Outreach News
News from Hawaii's Researchers & Extension Professionals
Wang, K-H., N. Kerr, P. Waisen, and J. Sugano
University of Hawaii at Mānoa, College of Tropical Agriculture and Human Resources



Fusarium wilt, the lethal soil-borne fungal disease, is one of the most widespread diseases of banana. Fusarium is difficult to manage because the pathogen can survive in the soil for 20 years in the absence of the banana plants and survives in the banana plant residues.  A project at the College of Tropical Agriculture and Human Resources examined two approaches of soil treatments against Fusarium.  One being anarobic soil disinfestation (ASD), which has created interest in the agricultural industry, since it is compatible with organic agriculture.  This paper discusses how CTAHR researchers investigated various approaches to manage the fungal disease Fusarium using ASD. Read here.
FMI: Koon-Hui Wang
Amjad Ahmad, Hue V. Nguyen, Joshua Silva, Jensen Uyeda, Jari Sugano, Theodore J.K. Radovich, Lynn Nakamura-Tengan, Sharon Motomura, and Kylie Tavares
University of Hawaii at Mānoa College of Tropical Agriculture and Human Resources
Known as Soya Bean, Daizu, Dadou, and Kong, soybeans are known for their high nutritional value, oil and various uses.  Typically soybea is used at the green shell stage as edamame.  Soybean plantings is recommended to be around 6 plants/foot and 30in between rows.  However smaller spacing 4-5 plants/foot and 15-20in between rows may lead to higher yields.  Ten Soybean varieties were evaluated under windward conditions by CTAHR researchers for highest yielding varieties and Biochar application rates on soybean yields. Read here
FMI: Amjad Ahmad 
G. Brya
Amjad A. Ahmad, Kylie Tavares, Hue V. Kguyen
University of Hawaii at Manoa, College of Tropical Agriculture and Human Resources
Biochar is the product of burning organic waste at high temperatures (300-700C) with no or limited oxygen.  The application of biochar has been reported to improve soil properties, increase plant growth and yields as well as reduce nutrient losses. CTAHR researchers evaluated five leafy green varieties for yield and biomass production under two different applications of biochar.
Read here.
 FMI: Amjad Ahmad
emai l:   alobady@hawaii.edu
Maui Cooperative Extension, University of Hawaii at Manoa, College of Tropical Agriculture and Human Resources
Bulb onions are one of the top commodities produced in the state, ranked 19th on Hawai'i's list of the top 20 commodities by value at $2.08 million in 2017 and ranked 2nd of the top 10 commodities imported by weight to Hawai'i. In March of this year Maui Agricultural Research Center staff performed a field trial assessing 8 varieties of short-day onion varieties. Read here.
FMI: Kylie Tavares,
What plastic mulch can help biofumigation to better manage nematodes?
Waisen, P., and K.-H. Wang
University of  Hawaiˋi at Mānoa College of Tropical Agriculture and Human Resources
A recent study conducted at the University of Hawai'i showed that macerating aboveground brown mustard tissues and incorporating into 4-inch soil depth followed by covering polythene black plastic mulch for 1 week suppressed plant-parasitic nematodes and improved soil health. Read here
FMI: Philip Waisen
email: pwaisen@hawaii.edu
Organic Screenhouse Trial of Parthenocarpic Cucumbers 
Preliminary Results April-June 2019
Giselle Bryant, Ted Radovich, Jari Sugano, Amjad Ahmad, Jensen Uyeda, Joshua Silva, Koon-Hui Wang
University of  Hawaiˋi at Mānoa College of Tropical Agriculture and Human Resources
There is high demand for locally grown cucumbers, however, cucumber production has its challenges.  With pest management being a significant bottleneck, fruit flies and pickleworm mismanagement could have serious damages to the fruit, dramatically reducing yields.  Many organic producers combat pest pressure with NOP-compliant pesticides, but overtime prove to be expensive, and frequent use can result in the development of pesticide resistance.  Another option, Pest Exclusion strategies like screenhouses, can control pests and minimize the use of pesticides.  Researchers at the College of Tropical Agriculture and Human Resources conducted a preliminary trial to evaluate the performance of five parthenocarpic cucumber varieties under organic production using a screenhouse. FMI Read here
Beginning Farmers
Helpful articles for those getting started
Kylie Tavares and Jushua Silva
University of Hawaiˋi at Mānoa College of Tropical Agriculture and Human Resources
In July, the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) began inspections of large farms on Oahu. Additional inspections are scheduled for Maui, Kaua'i, and Hawaii islands. Although these are the first round of inspections, inspections are expected to occur regularly and all farms are expected to comply to the Produce Safety Rule (PSR) by January 27, 2020. Inspections also include worker training for health and hygiene, cleaning and water system records, soil amendments of animal origin, and plans for wildlife management. To prepare farmers for these food safety inspections, UH Cooperative Extension Agents, with partners at the Hawaii Department of Agriculture and other groups, have conducted trainings regarding PSR and inspections.
Read here.
Produce Safety Alliance Grower Training
Amjad Ahmad: University of Hawaii at Manoa Cooperative Extension Farm Food Safety and Hawaii Department of Agriculture Food Safety.
October 1, 2019 Pearl City Urban Garden Center
 Whether you are large or small producer, new or have been around for a while, you may benefit from this training.  All non-exempt farms will be required to have at least one owner or manager to attend an approved FSMA PSA training.  This training workshop will be covering record keeping practices, worker hygiene, soil amendments, wildlife, domestication and land use to name a few.  Lunch and refreshments will be provided.  If you want more on how to register please Click Here
Organic Update
Hawaii's Compost Reimbursement Program
The Hawaii Department of Agriculture (HDOA) has established the Compost Reimbursement Program which may reimburse agricultural producers for the cost of purchasing compost. Act 89 which was enacted in 2018, allocated $650,000 over a two-year period for the reimbursement of 50 percent of compost cost incurred by agricultural producers during a portion of fiscal year 2020 (July 1, 2019 to March 30, 2020) not to exceed $50,000 per applicant per year. Funds for the remainder of the three-year program have not yet been funded by the legislature. Under the reimbursement program, compost must be purchased from a certified processor, retailer or wholesaler licensed to do business in Hawaii. In addition, certified Hawaii processors are limited to those companies regulated under the Hawaii Department of Health's Solid Waste Management Program.For more information, please click HERE .
2019 Organic Agriculture Research Forum presentations are now available.
This day-long event held on February 16th in Portland Oregon, featured innovative presentations from researchers across all disciplines related to organic farming and food systems. Presentations from the 2019 Organic Agriculture Research Forum were recorded by eOrganic and are also available.
Download proceedings HERE
View presentations HERE
New Training Program Offers Organic Basics for Beginning Farmers

OFRF is excited to introduce the first learning module, Organic Soil Health Management, in its free online training program for beginning farmers, existing organic farmers, and farmers in transition to organic production. The content throughout the training program focuses on organic specialty crop production in California. View/take the first learning module, Organic Soil Health Management HERE

Hawaiʻi Farm and Food Magazine

Download for free through Apple apps here.   
Or obtain a hard copy by visiting a Hawaii Farm Bureau Farmer's Market or by becoming a member
Upcoming Events
Kauai AgPro 
Extension Professionals: Building Your Toolbox
November 5-6, 2019 Kauai Community College, Office of Continuing Education Building (OCET) Room 105
The Sustainable and Organic Agriculture Program (SOAP) will be offering it's annual Agricultural Professional Development training (AgPro) supported by the Western Sustainable Agriculture Research and Education program (WSARE) November 5-6, 2019 on Kauai. SOAP will be partnering with Epsilon Sigma Phi (ESP) to provide training for extension educators in not only agriculture but all disciplines. Day-1 presentations will help increase your understanding of extension programing and evaluating impact (Location: Kauai Community College), Day-2 will include a half-day field trip (Location: TBD). There are still a few tickets left, this event is free to attend. If you are an extension professional please register  Here
Agroforestry Workshop Oahu 2019 
Designing and Growing an agroforest: Creating Regenerative and Profitable Landscapes
December 11-12, 2019 Waimanalo Research Center 41-698 Ahiki St. Waimanalo, HI 96795
As a response to climate change there has been increased interest in modern agroforestry systems.  According to the USDA, agroforestry is the intentional integration of trees and shrubs into crop and animal farming systems.  People today a very eager to plant food forests to increase profitability, regenerate the soil, and reduce the risks associated with weather extremes.  Participants of the workshop will gain experience designing an agroforest suitable for their site and personal goals, which include soil preparation, crop selecting, scheduling activities, managing growth, and analyzing their financial outcomes.  The Workshop has limited space.  The 2-day workshop is $75, $60 for early registration before Nov 13, 2019.  For more information Click Here
Aquaculture America 2020
February 9 - 12, 2020 Hawai'i Convention Center, Honolulu, HI
Aquaculture America 2020, international trade show where producers learn the latest in aquaculture practices, aquaculture technology, and a great opportunity to promote your products to the US and international markets.  For more information about the conference please click here.
Western Region Sustainable Agriculture and Research Education Program (WSARE)
Western SARE Competitive Grants: Professional + Producer
The Western Sustainable Agriculture Research and Education (SARE) program announces the Call for Proposals for Professional + Producer Research and Education Grants for 2020. With a Professional + Producer Research and Education Grant, an agricultural professional and five (5) producers work together to develop a proposal to conduct both research and education (outreach) on a sustainable agriculture topic. DEADLINE Nov 13, 2019 12:00p (noon) MST 
Western SARE Competitive Grants: Farmer/Rancher Research & Education 
The Administrative Council of the Western Sustainable Agriculture Research and Education (SARE) program announces the Call for Proposals for Farmer/Rancher Research & Education Grants for 2020. With a Farmer/Rancher Research & Education Grant, a producer, working with a technical advisor, develops a proposal to conduct research and education (outreach) on a sustainable agriculture topic. DEADLINE Nov 11, 2019 12:00pm (noon) MST
Videos Worth Watching 
  The Power of Data: Improving the Management of Rangeland Ecosystems shows how data collection by researchers at UC Davis serves as a valuable tool to share best management practices with the ranching community.
To browse all other SARE videos,
WSARE logo
Since 1988, the WSARE program has been supporting agricultural profitability, environmental integrity and community strength through grants that enable cutting-edge research and education to open windows on sustainability across the West, including Hawai'i. The goals of WSARE are:
  • Promote good stewardship of our natural resources.
  • Enhance the quality of life of farmers and ranchers and ensure the viability of rural communities.
  • Protect the health and safety of those involved in food and farm systems.
  • Promote crop, livestock and enterprise diversification.
  • Examine the regional, economic, social and environmental implications of adopting sustainable agriculture practices and systems.
For more information, please see: http://www.westernsare.org  or contact Hawai'i WSARE co-coordinators 
Sharon Motomura-Wages and Jensen Uyeda 
This e-publication has been prepared by CTAHR research scientists and extension staff to deliver science-based information about sustainable and organic production systems to serve Hawaii's farming community.
  • If this publication has been valuable, please forward it to others.
  • Send in your suggestions for what you want to read about in our articles.
  • Tell us about your research needs. 
Mahalo nui loa,
Jari SuganoTed Radovich ,  Giselle BryantResearch Coordinator and Eric Collier Education Specialist and Editor
Sustainable and Organic Agriculture Program 
Cooperative Extension Service 
College of Tropical Agriculture and Human Resources
University of Hawaii at Manoa
On-line version of newsletter as well as archived issues available at:  
The intent of these columns is to improve understanding in those unfamiliar with organic production, and to provide a resource to growers interested in or are currently producing organically.  
Let us know what you want to see featured in Hānai  ʻAi by emailing:
In This Issue
Research & Outreach News
Article Headline
Organic Update
Article Headline
Featured Farmer
Featured Farmer
Mānoa Chocolate 
Dylan & Tamara Butterbaugh 
Kaulia, Oahu
Area under production : 
1 acre
Years of production in Hawai'i: 
9 years
Products Produced
Craft Chocolate, Brewing Chocolate, Cacao Nibs, and Chocolate Tea 
Production System:
Mānoa Chocolate sources high quality cacao seeds that have been fermented and dried by the farmer. They taste test every batch that enters their factory.
Mahalo nui loa 
Dylan and Tamara!
Mānoa Chocolate
"In Hawaii, everyone is a collaborator, not a competitor in this industry".

"Let's all commit to growing and making chocolate in Hawaii to really develop the long-term health of our island's economy in this new sector".
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