Cover Crops and Green Manures 

Annual rye grass
Azolla
Bahia grass
Barley
Bermuda grass
Black oat
Buckwheat
Carpet grass
     Broad carpet grass
     Narrow carpet grass
Cereal rye
Cowpea
Lablab
Oat
Pangola
Perennial peanut
Pigeon pea
Rhodes
Sorghum-sudan grass
Star grass
St. Augustine grass
Stylo
Sunn hemp
Tropical lalo
White clover
White sweet clover
Woolypod vetch













Annual ryegrass

Annual Ryegrass
Lolium multiflorum

Also known as: Italian ryegrass

Cool season annual grass

Uses

  • Biomass/organic matter source (Dry Matter: 2,000-9,000 lbs/ac/yr)

Very fast establishing cover

Weed suppression

Topsoil conditioner

Nutrient catch crop (high N user)

Plant Highlights

  • EXCELLENT for increasing organic matter and improving soil structure, for providing erosion control, for quick growth and establishment
  • VERY GOOD for taking up & storing excess N, for suppressing weeds, for animal grazing (production, nutritional quality & palatability), for providing lasting residue

Cultural Traits

  • Fair heat tolerance
  • Fair drought tolerance
  • Very good shade tolerance
  • Very good flood tolerance
  • Fair tolerance to low fertility
  • pH range 5.5-7.0 (NRCS), prefers 6.0-7.0 (SAN)

Planting

Planting depth: 0 - 1/2 inches

Seeding Method

  • Drilled: Seed at 5-10 lb./A (0.2-0.4 bu/A)
  • Broadcast: Seed at 15-30 lb./A (0.6-1.25 bu/A)

Seed Cost: .50 $/lb

Seed Availability: Readily available

Cultivars

Cultivars commonly recommended by the Hawai`i Natural Resources Conservation Service include: 'Hubam'.

Mixes

with legumes, grasses

Soil Improvements

  • Good for loosening subsoil
  • Good at releasing P and K
  • Excellent at loosening topsoil

Pest Control

  • Good for suppressing nematodes
  • Good for disease suppression
  • Good allelopathic properties
  • Excellent weed suppression
  • Fair for attracting beneficial insects

Management Attributes

  • Excellent trafficability
  • Rapid establishment and growth ideal for short windows

Notes

  • Annual ryegrass may compete with the cash crop for N and moisture when used as a living mulch. Manage it appropriately (especially during drought, prolonged high or low temps, or in low fertility soils) to prevent yield decreases.
  • Can become a weed if allowed to set seed.
  • May tie up N while residue is decomposing. Wait a few weeks after incorporation before seeding subsequent crop or grow with a legume.

Uses in the Pacific Region

No information is available in this database on this topic.

Uses in Hawai`i

The Hawai`i Natural Resources Conservation Service Technical Guide includes Annual Ryegrass (cv. 'Tam 90') and Lolium rigidum (cv. 'Wimmera 62'). Their specification describes Annual Ryegrass as follows:

  • Minimum broadcast seeding rates of 40 lbs. pure live seed/acre;
  • pH range from 5.5-7.0;
  • Approximate growing time 90 days;
  • Approximate dry matter yield 1.5 tons/acre;
  • Approximate N content 13 lbs./T dry matter;
  • Add 25 lbs. of nitrogen/ton dry matter at plow down;
  • Optimum planting period year round at elevations over 1500 ft.
  • Optimum planting period fall/winter at elevations below 1500 ft.

Evensen, Osgood and El-Swaify conducted five years of research with small grains as cover crops on sugarcane plantations for erosion and weed control. Variety trials for 51 cultivars of oat, barley, wheat, ryegrass and rye grain on Hawai`i, Molokai, and Lanai were compared. Of the annual ryegrass trials, varieties 'Alamo' and 'Tam 90' were the most promising (in terms of vigorous growth, rapid soil cover, weed suppression, low plant height, and lack of flowering). This information has applications for pineapple, coffee and tropical fruit tree orchards.

For More Information:

UC Davis On-line Cover Crop Index

References

Evensen, C.I., Osgood, R.V., & El-Swaify, S.A. Small grain cover crops in Hawaii for erosion and weed control. A poster paper presented at the conference on "Cover Crops, Soil Quality and Ecosystems", March 12-14,1997.

1998. Managing Cover Crops Profitably, 2nd ed. Sustainable Agriculture Network, National Agricultural Library, Beltsville, USA. pp. 212.

USDA Natural Resources Conservation Service, Hawai`i Field Office Technical Guide, Section IV, Code 340 "Cover and Green Manure Crop" May 1992. Pacific Islands Area Field Office Technical Guide (eFOTG) - East Area


Azolla

Azolla
Azolla spp.

Summary

Azolla has been used as a green manure crop in Vietnam and China for centuries. The ability of azolla to shade out weeds in wetland rice and taro has been noted by farmers and researchers since the early 20th century. The effect of azolla on rice yields has been the primary focus of azolla research. Increases of from 14-40 per cent were quoted in a review article (Moore, 1969). Talley et al. (1977) achieved rice yield increases of 112% over the control by incorporating one 60 kg N/ha layer of A. filiculoides into the paddy soil and an increase of 216% by incorporating one layer and then growing azolla as a dual crop with rice. Scientists in China reported increases ranging from 0.4 to 158% with an average of 18.6% from the results of 422 field experiments. (Lumpkin and Plucknett, 1980)

Advantages

  • Vegetative material easy to find
  • Usually easy to establish
  • Obtains quick cover
  • Effective at shading out weeds
  • Usually requires no extra fertilization beyond P applied to crop
  • Nitrogen-fixing
  • May increase crop yields
  • Doesn't attract taro or rice pests

Disadvantages

  • Can be used only in wet fields
  • Vegetative material may be contaminated with apple snails
  • May require a nursery pond
  • May be difficult to establish in winter
  • Die back can occur during hot weather
  • Weevils may contribute to die back
  • Can become weedy in slow-moving waterways

Common Names

Azolla, water velvet, mosquito fern

Scientific Names

Azolla filiculoides (the species most commonly found in Hawai`i), Azolla caroliniana, Azolla mexicana, Azolla microphylla, Azolla nilotica, and Azolla pinnata.

Cultivars

The Internation Rice Research Institute in the Philippines maintains a collection of hundreds of numbered accessions of azolla. However, in Hawai`i there are no named cultivars of the common Azolla filiculoides that came from a chance introduction in the early 20th century (Fosberg, 1942).

Seed Description

Azolla is almost always propagated vegetatively since its most common mode of multiplication is vegetative. Like other ferns, it produces spores, not seeds.

Seedling Description

When a frond reaches a certain size, the older stems detach themselves from the main stem as a result of the formation of an abscission layer.

Mature Plant Description

Azolla is a floating water fern that has a symbiotic relationship with a nitrogen-fixing bacteria. An azolla plant, generally called a frond, consists of a main stem growing at the surface of the water which has alternate leaves and adventitious roots at regular intervals along the stem. Secondary stems develop at the axil of certain leaves.(Van Hove et al., 1983). Azolla fronds are triangular or polygonal in shape, and float on the water surface individually or in mats. Plant diameter ranges from 1-2.5 cm for small species such as A. pinnata, to 15 or more for A. nilotica. At the point of attachment each branch has an abscission layer, which is important in vegetative reproduction. Leaves consist of a thick aerial dorsal lobe and a thin ventral lobe, which is boat-shaped and rests on the surface so that the frond floats. The upper lobe has a large central cavity which houses a population of symbiotic cyanobacteria (blue-green algae) named Anabaena azollae.

Temperature

The optimum for most azolla is between 20 and 30 degrees C. Temperature affects both water and nitrogen content. A. fililculoides is reported to withstand temperatures as low as 5 degrees C but to be less tolerant of higher temperatures than some other species (Lumpkin and Plucknett, 1980). Van Hove et al. recommend that strain selection should take temperature into consideration.

Geographic Range

Azolla is found in ponds, ditches, and wetlands of warm-temperate and tropical regions throughout the world. A. filiculoides was endemic to southern South America through western North America to Alaska. It is now found in Africa, Australia, Asia, and Europe. It has become a noxious weed in waterways of Europe, Africa, and New Zealand. (Lumpkin and Plucknett, 1980)

Water

Azolla must grow in water or wet mud to survive. It dies in a few hours if it becomes dry. Water control is critical, especially for year round production. A water level which allows the roots to touch the soil surface will often cause mineral deficiencies to appear. Wind and wave action can eventually fragment and kill azolla. Maintaining low water levels and rough plowing can protect azolla from wind. In Africa, hedges, bunds, and mixed culture (with crop plants) are used to prevent wind damage. (Von Hove, et al., 1983)

Nutrients

Azolla can grow well in the absence of any nitrogen source. Phosphorus is the most common limiting factor in the growth of azolla. Fronds placed in P deficient solution decrease or stop growth, become red, and develop curled roots. The minimum P requirement is not known but it thrives on as little as 1.1 mg P/liter. Problems due to iron deficiency or toxicity are fairly frequent. Azolla fronds turn yellow when iron is lacking. Rapid growth is achieved with 1 ppm iron. Molybdenum requirements, though low, are higher than for most other plants.

Soil pH

Since azolla lives in water the following refers to the pH of the water only. Azolla can survive within a pH range of 3.5 to 10, but optimum growth is in the range of 4.5 to 7. The relative growth rate is influenced by a direct relationship between light intensity and pH with the highest growth rates achieved at high pH (9-10) and high light intensity and low pH (5-6) and low light. Nitrogen fixation is optimal at pH 6 and 20 degrees C.

Deficiency problems can be caused in neutral to alkaline water because ferric ions precipitate. There can also be competition between ferrous and manganous ions in water with a neutral pH and reduction in absorption of both iron and managanese with high calcium concentrations. At pH 4, ferric ions are so readily available that a high concentration of calcium is required to balance the increased absorption of iorn, otherwise azolla suffers from iron toxicity. (Lumpkin and Plucknett, 1980).

Soil Type

Since azolla lives only in wetland fields, water conditions are more relevant than soil type. Soils which have the ability to pond are usually required.

Shade Tolerance

Relative growth and nitrogenase activity is at a maximum at 50% of full sunlight although the difference between growth at 50% and 100% sunlight is not that great. Heavy shading is known to decrease azolla growth to almost zero. (Lumpkin and Plucknett, 1980)

Salinity Tolerance

The growth rate of azolla gradually declines as salinity increases. At about 1.3% salt (33% of sea water) the growthof azolla stops and higher concentrations will kill it. In rice fields where salt concentration reaches 1480-1872 mg/l during the dry season azolla wilts. Salinity is a factor which should be looked wherever azolla is being considered. (Lumpkin and Plucknett, 1980).

Herbicide Sensitivity

Most rice herbicides kill or inhibit azolla growth. Differences in sensitivity are specific to the different azolla species. (Moody and Janiya, 1992)

Life Cycle

A pair of sporocarps forms on the lower lobe of the first leaf at the point of a branch. They are either microsporocarps or megasporocarps that detach themselves, sink to the bottom and go dormant. When the megaspore germinates, it produces a female gamete that is fertilized by the male gamete that develops from the microspore. The resulting seedling floats up to the surface. (Van Hove, et al., 1983).

Vegetative reproduction occurs when a frond reaches a certain size. The older stems detach themselves from the main stem as a result of the formation of an abscission layer. (Lumpkin and Plucknett, 1980).

Seeding Rate

The Vietnamese recommend a rate of 0.5kg/m2, with up to 1.6kg/m2 in less than optimum conditions (low light, algal blooms, or other conditions that keep light from reaching the azolla). The rate of 0.5kg/m2 has also been used in rice fields in California. (Lumpkin and Plucknett, 1980)

Seedling Depth

Not applicable.

Seeding Method

  • In tropical Asia azolla is traditionally cultivated as a green manure for rice in two ways. One way is to set aside 5-10% of the crop area for year-round production. The cultivated azolla is later added to crop fields as compost. In the second way, azolla is cultivated in the rice fields and incorporated before and/or after the rice crop and between crops. Ideally azolla is grown several times before rice transplanting.
  • When azolla is used to suppress weeds in rice or taro production a rate of 0.5kg/m2 is used. Azolla is propagated in the field for 2-4 weeks prior to transplanting (depending on azolla growth rates which are generally higher in summer and lower in winter in Hawai`i).
  • When azolla innoculum is low, azolla is overgrown by algae and weeds. Increasing the innoculum rate decreases weeds and increases rice yields. (Moody and Janiya, 1992)
  • In areas where azolla may be dispersed by wind or currents, azolla should be protected temporarily by a bund or wooden floats which are gradually moved outward until the area is covered.

Seeding Dates

Year round in Hawai`i, although growth rates are lower in winter months.

Innoculation

There is no need for innoculation since the nitrogen-fixing bacteria is always present. (Lumpkin and Plucknett, 1980)

Seed Cost

At this time, there is no information available suggesting that azolla has been sold in Hawaii. It is generally collected from the wild and put into a pond for propagation and distribution.

Seed Availability

In Hawai`i Azolla filiculoides is common in ditches, ponds, and slow-moving streams where it can be collected with a net.

Days to Flowering

Not applicable.

Days to Maturity

Not applicable.

Seed Production

Not applicable.

Seed Storage

Not applicable.

Growth Habit

Azolla spreads laterally, growing exponentially until it covers the whole surface of the water. Its exponential growth rate is subject to many environmental constraints. A. pinnata doubles its biomass in 3-5 days in lab situations but in the field 5-10 days is more normal. Growth slows down as plants on the upper surface are deprived of water and nutrients, their roots unable to penetrate the lower layers. The plants in the lower layers receive less and less light. (Von Hove, et al, 1983)

Maximum Height

When the surface of the water is filled by the very low growing fronds it begins to grow on top of itself in layers up to a few inches deep.

Root System

Adventitious roots hang in the water or, when in shallow water, occasionally penetrate into the mud.

Establishment

Azolla is established by vegetative propagation. Nursery ponds are generally used to supply a large enough volume to a wetland field to ensure quick coverage of the area so shade will suppress germination of weeds. Some hand weeding may be necessary, particularly if perennial weeds have not been controlled prior to establishing the azolla. In taro lo`i pre-plant fertilizer is applied at normal rates to supply the phosphorus required for quick growth of the azolla. It has been recommended that water contain 20ppm P for optimum azolla growth. (Lumpkin and Plucknett, 1980). In experiments with azolla in California rice fields, phosphorus was applied at the rate of 7.2kg P/ha in four equal doses 7 days apart.

Maintenance

Occasional spot weeding may be necessary as azolla becomes established. Some species of weeds in rice have been shown to be able to penetrate the azolla cover and become established. (Moody and Janiya, 1992). Where phosphorus is limited, additional fertilization may be necessary to maintain azolla growth (see establishment section).

Mowing

Not applicable.

Incorporation

In Asia azolla is incorporated by trampling or ploughing. In Hawai`i it has also been rototilled into taro lo`i (pond fields).

Harvesting

Azolla is removed from nursery ponds using hand nets or small drag nets. It has been placed in buckets, burlap sacks or onion bags for transporting.

Equipment

Chinese publications have described baskets, pushers, scoopers, scrape boards, and beaters.(Lumpkin and Plucknett, 1980)

Uses

  • nitrogen-fixing green manure
  • weed suppression
  • feed for ducks, pigs,chickens and fish
  • compost
  • potential for human consumption

(Lumpkin and Plucknett, 1980)

Mixtures

None.

Biomass

Under Asian rice field conditions A. pinnata realistically produces 8-10 tons/ha per crop fresh weight. Yields of 1.8 to 3 tons/ha dry weight have been obtained with A. filiculoides. (Lumpkin and Plucknett, 1980)

N Contribution

Estimates of annual nitrogen fixation vary widely. In California rice, A. filiculoides produced 52kg N/ha in 35 days under field conditions at a rate of 1.2 kg/ha/day between 10-35 days after inoculation. The Vietnam Institute of Agriculture suggested an approximate potential of 1000 kg/ha per year. (Lumpkin and Plucknett, 1980)

A C:N ratio of 15:1 was reported for A. pinnata. Reports indicate an increase in nitrogen recovery when azolla is incorporated into soil rather than allowed to decompose in water. Azolla nitrogen is released slowly and its availability is only about 70% of ammonium sulfate. Most studies have found two thirds of the azolla nitrogen is released after six weeks (or 5-8 weeks in some). (Lumpkin and Plucknett, 1980)

Non-N Contribution

Azolla as a green manure contributes organic matter to the soil. Green A. filiculoides has been reported to contain 0.43% phosphorus and 2.5% potassium. Red azolla contained only one third the phosphorus of that in green azolla and potassium was reduced by 20%. (Lumpkin and Plucknett, 1980)

Effects on Water

The Institute of Soils and Fertilizers (China) also reported that growth of azolla reduced evaporation by 11% and water salt content by 0.012-0.049%. (Lumpkin and Plucknett, 1980) Experiments in Hawai`i have recorded differences of 1 degree C and more between lo`i (ponds) with azolla and without. (DeFrank, personal communication).

Effects on Microclimate

Water temperatures have been reduced (see above).

Effects on Soil

As reported by Lumpkin and Plucknett, the Institute of Soils and Fertilizers in China found that azolla used as a green manure decreased specific gravity, increased porosity (3.7-4.2%), and increased organic matter in soils. Soil salt content was reduced by 0.014-0.048%. (Lumpkin and Plucknett, 1980)

Effects on Livestock

Amino acid analyses show lysine, methionine and histamine are probably limiting, although the protein content is as high 13% on a dry weight basis. No growth inhibitors or toxins were found in experiments with rats. Used as feed for ducks, pigs and fish.

Effects on Workers

Not available.

Pest Effects, Insects

The insects which attack azolla are not those that attack rice. In Asia insects pests of azolla are controlled with the same insecticides used for rice. Insect attacks increase during the summer, especially when the temperature goes above 28 degrees C. Larvae of Chironomus, Pyralis, and Nymphula species are pests. The Chinese have also documented an Azolla Elephant Beetle and several species of snails. (Lumpkin and Plucknett, 1980) Azolla is a preferred food of Hawai`i apple snails in Hawai`i, a serious pest of taro. Care must be taken when transferring azolla from one location to another that apple snails and/or their eggs are not present. A weevil (probably Stemopelmus spp.) and larvae of the moth Agrotis ipsilon have also been reported on azolla in Hawai`i (Lumpkin and Plucknett, 1980).

Pest Effects, Nematodes

Not available.

Pest Effects, Diseases

Reduction in water temperatures by azolla may help in the prevention of root diseases like Pythium spp. that are more prevalent as temperatures increase. Chinese researchers have mentioned a decay or mold disease present on azolla without naming the organism. (Lumpkin and Plucknett, 1980).

Pest Effects, Weeds

The ability of azolla to create a light-proof mat that suppresses other weeds has been mentioned since 1927 in the literature (Fosberg noted taro farmers' use of azolla in Hawai`i in 1942). Studies in the Philippines (Moody and Janiya, 1992) and in Hawai`i (DeFrank, 1995) have shown that azolla can suppress most weeds in rice and taro.

At a farm in Waiahole, Hawai`i taro was planted into a three week old azolla mat that covered the entire surface of the water. No weeding was necessary for the first three months, while in areas with no azolla, three hand-weedings were required. In this case the azolla died back from unknown causes and hand-weeding was necessary until the taro closed canopy. (Ferentinos, unpublished data).

Pest Effects, Vertebrates

None reported.


Uses in the Pacific Region

No information is available in this database on this topic.

Uses in Hawai`i

  • Fosberg noted taro farmers' use of azolla in Hawai`i in 1942.
  • DeFrank (1995) has shown that azolla can suppress most weeds in rice and taro.
  • At a farm in Waiahole, Hawai`i taro was planted into a three week old azolla mat that covered the entire surface of the water. No weeding was necessary for the first three months, while in areas with no azolla, three hand-weedings were required. In this case the azolla died back from unknown causes and hand-weeding was necessary until the taro closed canopy. (Ferentinos, unpublished data).

For More Information

1997. Taro, Mauka to Makai: A Taro Production and Business Guide for Hawai`i Growers. College of Tropical Agriculture and Human Resources, University of Hawai`i at Manoa. 108 pages.


References

DeFrank, J. 1995. Azolla for Weed Control in Wetland Taro Production. Video. University of Hawai`i at Manoa, College of Tropical Agriculture. 19 min. This video documents an experiment using Azolla, an aquatic fern, to reduce weeds in wetland taro. Available for purchase at http://www2.ctahr.hawaii.edu/oc/forsale/

Fosberg, F.R. 1942. Uses of Hawaiian Ferns. American Fern Journal Vol 32: pp. 5-23.

Moody, Keith and J.D. Janiya. 1992. The role of azolla in weed control in rice. Philippine Journal of Weed Science, Vol. 19: 79-102.

Lumpkin, Thomas A. and Donald L. Plucknett. 1980. Azolla: Botany, Physiology and Use as a Green Manure. Economic Botany 34(2): pp. 111-153.

Talley, S.N., B.J. Talley, and D.W. Rains. 1977. Nitrogen fixation by Azolla in rice fields. In Alexander Hollaender, ed. Genetic Engineering for Nitrogen fixation, pp. 259-281. Plenum Press, New York and London.

Van Hove, C., H.F. Diara, and P. Godard. 1983. Azolla in West Africa. West Africa Rice Development Association.


Bahia grass

Bahia Grass
Paspalum notatum

Summary

  • Tropical to subtropical low growing creeping perennial grass
  • Used primarily as a forage and valued for its dense cover, productivity, ease of establishment and persistence
  • Used in Hawai`i for orchard crops
  • Used for erosion control
  • Very shade tolerant
  • Good salt tolerance
  • Good drought tolerance
  • Very vigorous aggressive grass (may be considered a weed), not easily eradicated
  • Heavy seeder, viable seed disseminated in feces
  • Root knot nematode resistant cultivars available

Common Name

Its common name is Bahia grass, grama dulce, forquinha, gengibrillo, pasto horqueta (Bogdan).

Scientific Name

The scientific name is Paspalum notatum Fluegge (Bogdan).

Cultivars

Bahia grass cultivar ‘Pensacola’ is the best known and widely cultivated in the USA and introduced elsewhere. Other important cultivars are ‘Tifhi-1’ (similar to Pensacola but provides grazing earlier and later in the season), ‘ Common’, ‘Argentina’, ‘Batatai’, ‘Paraguay’ (nematode resistant), and ‘Wilmington’ (most frost resistant) (Bogdan).

Seed Description

Seeds are about 1.8 mm long and 1.2 mm wide (Bogdan), ovoid, glossy yellowish-green, and flattened on one side. Hand harvested seed has a high percentage of hard-seededness. Germination is low initially but improves with up to 3 years of storage (Baki).

Seedling Description

Seedlings can be subject to weed competition. Planting in a clean seedbed is recommended (FAO).

Mature Plant Description

Bahia grass is a low-growing creeping perennial with stolons and stout rhizomes. Stolons are pressed firmly to the ground, have short internodes, and root freely from the nodes forming a dense sod. Stems range from 15-70 cm (6-28 in.) high. The leaves are linear, between 5-20 cm (2-8 in.) long, 2-10 mm wide, tapering to a fine point. Bahia grass is a polymorphic species with three varieties: notatum, latiflorum Doell., and saureae Parodi (Bogdan).

Temperature

The optimum temperature range for Bahia grass is 25°- 30°C (77° - 86°F) maximum (30°C/86°F mean). It can tolerate temperatures down to 10°C/50°F (top growth is killed) (Baki).

Origin and Geographic Distribution

Bahia grass is considered to be indigenous to southern Brazil and the Americas. It is now distributed throughout the southern USA, Central and South America, parts of Australia, Asia and Africa (Baki)

Ecology

Bahia grass occurs naturally in sub-humid to humid subtropical climates. It is considered best suited to sandy or light textured soils. It is a vigorous aggressive grass that spread vegetatively and by seed (viable through feces) (Baki).

Water

Bahia grass prefers rainfalls between 800 to 2000 mm (32-79 in.) It can tolerate flooding up to 36 days. It has good drought tolerance (Baki).

Nutrients

Bahia grass (cv. ‘Pensacola’) responds well to N with increases in herbage yield and improvement in digestibility. Maximum N rates recommended are about 100-200 kg N/ha (90-178 lb/ac). Phosphorus applications increase tillering and yields. Potassium with N and P can increase DM yields and digestibility, but decrease crude protein in the herbage (Bogdan). The FAO reports bahia grass responding well to 10-12 kg/ha (9-11 lb/ac) copper in poor sandy soils.

Soil pH

Bahia grass grows at a pH between 4.0 – 6.5 (NRCS Tech Guide).

Soil Type

Bahia grass will grow on a wide range of soils, and is naturally adapted to sandy or light textured soils (Baki). It can grow well on wet clay soil (Bogdan).

Shade Tolerance

Bahia grass is considered very shade tolerant and has higher yields under 50% shade than in full sunlight (Baki).

Salinity Tolerance

Bahia grass has good salt tolerance. It can withstand up to 4,500 ppm NaCl in irrigation water. Higher salinity (9,000-27,000 ppm NaCl) reduced photosynthesis and transpiration but has little effect on respiration (Bogdan)

Herbicide Sensitivity

No information is available in this database on this topic.

Life Cycle

Germination is slow because the hard scales, lemma and palea of the floret do not allow rapid penetration of water. Early development of young plants is slow (Bogdan).

Seeding Rate

  • 10-20 kg/ha (Bogdan).
  • 2-5 kg/ha (FAO).
  • Minimum 40 lbs. pure live seed/acre (NRCS).

Seeding Depth

1/2 to 3/4 inch or 1-2 cm (Bogdan).

Seeding Method

To improve germination, seed should be hammermilled (Baki). Alternately seed can be treated with 60% sulfuric acid for 23 minutes followed by submerging in water for 15 minutes (Bogdan). Drill into a fine seedbed and roll (FAO).

Seeding Dates

Year round in Hawai`i.

Inoculation

Not practiced. Some cultivars of bahia grass can form an association with the nitrogen-fixing bacteria Azotobacter paspali. N fixation is estimated to be on the order of 10-20 kg N/ha/yr (8.9-17.8 lb/ac/yr). A symbiosis between P. notatum cv. ‘Batatai’ with an endogenous mycorrhizal fungus of the genus Endogene has been reported resulting in more vigorous growth of inoculated seedlings than non-inoculated ones (Bogdan).

Seed Cost

No information is available in this database on this topic.

Seed Availability

Readily available.

Days to Flowering

No information is available in this database on this topic.

Days to Maturity

No information is available in this database on this topic.

Seed Production

Bahia grass ripens progressively over the summer in the USA. A series of harvests with a beater or stripper gives the highest yields. Seed yields are reduced when combine harvesting is used (FAO).

Seed Storage

Seed should be dried thoroughly immediately after harvest (FAO). Germination improves with up to 3 years of storage (Baki).

Growth Habit

Bahia grass is a low growing perennial spreading by short, stout, woody runners and by seed. The runners have many large fibrous roots which form dense, tough sods. Seedlings can be subject to weed competition initially (FAO).

Maximum Height

Bahia grass grows to a maximum height between 15-70 cm (about 6-28 inches), occasionally reaching 100 cm high (about 40 inches) (Bogdan).

Root System

The runners have many large fibrous roots which form dense, tough sods (FAO).

Establishment

Sprigging: Use pieces of rhizomes or stolons planted closely at spacings of 15-25 cm (6-10 inches) apart (Bogdan). Can also be sodded (FAO).

Maintenance

No information is available in this database on this topic.

Mowing

Grazing: Bahia should be grazed close to ground level to keep it acceptable to animals (Baki).

Incorporation

Not applicable. Not generally used as a green manure.

Harvesting

Bahia grass is not generally harvested for hay or silage as yields are low when in young leafy stage and quality is poor in later, higher yielding stages (Baki).

Equipment

No information is available in this database on this topic.

Uses

  • Used primarily as a forage and is valued for its dense cover, productivity, ease of establishment and persistence
  • Used for erosion control
  • Recommended in Hawai`i for orchard crops

Mixtures

It is difficult to maintain legumes with Bahia grass because it is so competitive. However, Bahia grass has been successfully used with Trifolium repens, Vigna parkeri and perennial Arachis spp. in the subtropics (Baki). In Japan and Australia, mixes of Bahia grass with lucerne and with siratro (Macroptilium atropurpureum) have been successfully grown. In the USA, successful Bahia grass mixes with Arachis monticola and Arachis glabrata have been reported (Bogdan).

Biomass

No information is available in this database on this topic.

N Contribution

Estimated at 10-20 kg. N/ha/yr when forms association with Azotobacter paspali (Bogdan).

Non-N Nutrient Contribution

No information is available in this database on this topic.

Effects on Water

No information is available in this database on this topic.

Effects on Soil

No information is available in this database on this topic.

Effects on Livestock

Animal production on Bahia grass is acceptable: crude protein is about 14%, with seasonal fluctuations; total dry matter digestibility ranges from 40-53% (Bogdan). In the USA, Bahia grass pastures fertilized with N (100-200 kg/ha or 90-178 lb/ac) produce 400-600 kg/ha/yr liveweight gain and can carry 5 head/ha (Baki).

Pest Effects, Insects

No information is available in this database on this topic.

Pest Effects, Nematodes

Belonolaimus longicaudatus, a sting nematode, can attack Bahia grass roots with damage varying among the different cultivars. Bahia grass is root knot nematode resistant (especially cv. ‘Paraguay’) and has been used in rotations with crops susceptible to nematodes to reduce populations (Baki).

Pest Effects, Diseases

Paspalum ergot (Claviceps paspali) can reduce seed yields (cv. ‘Pensacola’ is resistant) (Baki).   Pest Effects, Weeds

Seedlings can be subject to weed competition. Planting in a clean seedbed is recommended (FAO).

Pest Effects, Vertebrates

No information is available in this database on this topic.


Uses in the Pacific Region

No information is available in this database on this topic.

Uses in Hawai`i

  • The Hawai`i Natural Resources Conservation Service Technical Guide includes Bahia grass (cv. ‘Pensacola’). Their specification describes Bahia grass as follows:
  • Tolerates acid/low fertility soils;
  • Minimum seeding rate of 40 lbs. pure live seed/acre;
  • pH range from 4.0-6.5;
  • Planting rate 40-80 bu/ac (sprigs or stolons, maximum 3x3 ft. spacing),
  • Low maintenance required;
  • Fair shade tolerance;
  • Fair drought tolerance;
  • Rainfall range of 40+ inches;
  • Elevation range from 0-4500 ft.

Evans reports that Bahia grass has potential as a cover crop for bananas in Hawai`i based on research from Taiwan where it has been used for bananas, citrus, and lichee production.


References

Bogdan, A.V. 1977. Tropical Pasture and Fodder Plants. Longman Inc., New York. pp. 205-212.

Baki, B.B., Ipon, I.B., & Chen, C.P., 1992. Paspalum notatum Fluegge. In: ’t Mannetje, L. & Jones, R.M. (Editors): Plant Resources of South-East Asia No 4. Forages. Pudoc-DLO, Wageningen, the Netherlands. pp. 181-183.

Evans, Dale O., Joy, Robert J., & Chia, C.L., 1988. Cover Crops for Orchards in Hawaii. Hawaii Institute of Tropical Agriculture and Human Resources, University of Hawaii at Manoa, Honolulu, Hawaii, United Stated. 16 pp.

FAO Web Site

USDA Natural Resources Conservation Service, Hawai`i Field Office Technical Guide, Section IV, Code 340 "Cover and Green Manure Crop" May 1992. Pacific Islands Area Field Office Technical Guide (eFOTG) - East Area


Barley

Barley
Hordeum vulgare

Cool season annual cereal grain

Uses

  • Biomass/organic matter source (Dry Matter: 3,000-10,000 lbs/ac/yr)
  • Erosion control
  • Weed suppression
  • Nurse crop or companion crop
  • Nutrient recycler

Plant Highlights

  • EXCELLENT for providing erosion control, for providing lasting residue
  • VERY GOOD for taking up & storing excess N, for increasing organic matter and improving soil structure, for suppressing weeds, for animal grazing (production, nutritional quality & palatability), for quick growth and establishment

Cultural Traits

  • Very good heat tolerance
  • Very good drought tolerance
  • Good shade tolerance
  • Fair flood tolerance
  • Very good tolerance to low fertility
  • pH range 5.0-8.3 (NRCS), prefers 6.0-8.5 (SAN)

Planting

Planting depth: 3/4 - 2 inches

Seeding Method

  • Drilled: Seed at 50-100 lb./A (1-2 bu/A)
  • Broadcast: Seed at 80-125 lb./A (1.6-2.5 bu/A)

Seed Cost: .05-.20 $/lb

Seed Availability: Readily available

Cultivars

Work by Evensen, Osgood, and El-Swaify suggests that the 'Wysor' cultivar is suitable for a cover crop in Hawai`i.

Mixes

with annual legumes or grasses, perennial ryegrass

Soil Improvements

  • Good for loosening subsoil
  • Good at releasing P and K
  • Very good at loosening topsoil

Pest Control

  • Root knot nematode susceptible (NRCS)
  • Fair for disease suppression
  • Very good allelopathic properties
  • Very good weed suppression
  • Good for attracting beneficial insects

Management Attributes

  • Good trafficability
  • Rapid establishment and growth ideal for short windows

Notes

  • Barley can be easily killed with grass herbicides or by disking or mowing at mid to late bloom stage, prior to setting seed.
  • Barley cover crops have been shown to increase populations of centipedes, predator mites, beneficial spiders, and other important predators.
  • Barley can be a host for nematode species Meloidogyne javanica.

Uses in the Pacific Region

No information is available in this database on this topic.

Uses in Hawai`i

The Hawai`i Natural Resources Conservation Service Technical Guide includes Barley. Their specification describes Barley as follows:

  • Minimum broadcast seeding rates of 70 lbs. pure live seed/acre;
  • pH range from 5.0-8.3;
  • Approximate growing time 90 days;
  • Approximate dry matter yield 1 ton/acre;
  • Approximate N content 18 lbs./T dry matter;
  • Add 20 lbs. of nitrogen/ton dry matter at plow down;
  • Optimum planting period year round at elevations over 1500 ft.
  • Optimum planting period fall/winter at elevations below 1500 ft.

Evensen, Osgood and El-Swaify conducted five years of research with small grains as cover crops on sugarcane plantations for erosion and weed control. Variety trials for 51 cultivars of oat, barley, wheat, ryegrass and rye grain on Hawai`i, Molokai, and Lanai were compared. Of the barley trials, 'Wysor' was the most promising (in terms of vigorous growth, rapid soil cover, weed suppression, low plant height, and lack of flowering). This information has applications for pineapple, coffee and tropical fruit tree orchards.

For More Information

UC Davis On-line Cover Crop Index


References

Evensen, C.I., Osgood, R.V., & El-Swaify, S.A. Small grain cover crops in Hawaii for erosion and weed control. A poster paper presented at the conference on "Cover Crops, Soil Quality and Ecosystems", March 12-14,1997.

1998. Managing Cover Crops Profitably, 2nd ed. Sustainable Agriculture Network, National Agricultural Library, Beltsville, USA. pp. 212.

USDA Natural Resources Conservation Service, Hawai`i Field Office Technical Guide, Section IV, Code 340 "Cover and Green Manure Crop" May 1992. Pacific Islands Area Field Office Technical Guide (eFOTG) - East Area


Bermuda grass

Bermuda Grass
Cynodon dactylon

Also known as manienie in Hawai`i

Summary

  • Tropical, subtropical and warm temperate prostrate perennial
  • Used as forage grass, lawn grass, cover crop, and for erosion control
  • Some cultivars are only established by vegetative propagation (sod, sprigs, plugs)
  • Resists weed invasion once established
  • ‘NK-37’ is root-knot resistant
  • Very good drought tolerance
  • Not shade tolerant
  • Worldwide it is considered a serious weed in maize, cotton, sugar cane, vineyards and plantation crops
  • Rhizomes are strong, stout, branched and spread rapidly

Common Name

Its common name is Bermuda grass, couch grass (Bogdan), green couch (Hana), kabuta (Fiji) (FAO). In Hawai`i it is called manienie (Deputy).

Scientific Name

The scientific name is Cynodon dactylon (L.) Pers. (Bogdan). Cynodon dactylon is a variable species and six varieties have been recognized (Hanna). The most notable is var. dactylon which is distributed worldwide and in some areas is considered a noxious weed. Var. aridus, var. elegans, and var. coursii are of regional importance (Bogdan).

Cultivars

There are many cultivars of C. dactylon var. dactylon, many of which are sterile hybrids. ‘Common Bermuda Grass’ is the common weed, but is excellent for erosion control and winter feed (originating in the Near East).

Cultivars released for pasture uses include: ‘Coastal’, ‘Coastcross-1’, ‘Tifton 78’, ‘Tifton 68’, ‘Hardie’, ‘Oklan’ and ‘Brazos’ (Hanna).

‘NK37" is root knot nematode resistant (NRCS).

Some cultivars commonly used for lawns in Hawai`i include: ‘Sunturf’, ‘Tifway’, ‘Tifway II’ (denser and more resistant to sting and root-knot nematodes), ‘Tifgreen’, ‘Tifgreen 328’, ‘Tifdwarf’ (putting greens), ‘FloraDwarf’ (putting greens), ‘GN-1’, ‘MS-Choice’, ‘MS-Express’, ‘MS-Pride’, ‘NuMex Sahara’, ‘Sultan’, ‘Yuma’, ‘Blue-muda’ (Deputy).

Seed Description

Seeds are ovoid, about 1.5 mm (1/16 inch) long, and yellow to reddish (Hanna).

Seedling Description

No information is available in this database on this topic.

Mature Plant Description

Bermuda grass is a prostrate stoloniferous perennial herb with rhizomes which extend into the ground to a depth of 1 meter (39 in.) or more (Hanna). The stems are up to 60 cm (24 in.) tall. Its leaves are flat or folded, 3-12 cm long by 2-4 mm wide. Spikes are 1.5-8 cm long, three to six in a whorl (Bogdan).

Temperature

Bermuda grass is a tropical and subtropical species. It grows best where mean daily temperatures are above 24° C (75°F). Temperatures of -2 to -3°C (28.4 - 26°F) usually kill leaves and stems but rhizomes survive and regrow in the spring (Hanna).

Origin and Geographic Distribution

Cynodon dactylon var. dactylon is believed to originate in Turkey and Pakistan (Bogdan). It has been introduced to all tropical and subtropical regions of the world (Hanna). Var. aridus is found in S India to SW Africa, var. elegans is found in S. Africa, and var. coursii is found in Madagascar (Bogdan).

Ecology

The optimal temperature for Bermuda grass is 24°C (75°F) (mean). It is deep rooted, drought tolerant, tolerates a wide pH range, and tolerates low fertility soil. It is shade intolerant (Hanna).

Water

‘Coastal’ Bermuda grass requires over 500 mm (about 20 in.) of annual rainfall for reasonable yields. It can be dormant for as long as 6-7 months (Bogdan). Bermuda grass will tolerate long periods of flooding (Hanna). The FAO reports Bermuda grass growing at rainfalls ranging from 625-1750 mm (about 25-69 inches).

Nutrients

Bermuda grass can tolerate low fertility, but fertilization will greatly increase yields especially for hybrid varieties. A minimum of 10 kg/ha (8.9 lb/ac) of N per month of growth is required for moderate to high productivity. Some of the improved hybrids will respond to rates as high as 60 kg/ha (53.5 lb/ac)  N per month of growth (Hanna).

Soil pH

Bermuda grass tolerates a broad pH range, but grows best when the pH is above 5.5 (Hanna). pH range: 5.0-8.0 (NRCS)

Soil Type

Bermuda grass will grow on a wide range of soils, and grows best in well-drained soils (Hanna).

Shade Tolerance

Bermuda grass is not shade tolerant and yields will decrease in shaded conditions (Bogdan).

Salinity Tolerance

Bermuda grass can tolerate salinity in irrigation water (Bogdan).

Herbicide Sensitivity

No information is available in this database on this topic.

Life Cycle

No information is available in this database on this topic.

Seeding Rate

Plant 5-10 kg/ha hulled seed. Use higher rates for rapid sward development (Hanna).

Minimum rate: 35 lbs. pure live seed/acre (NRCS).

Seeding Depth

1/4-1/2 inch deep (Deputy).

Seeding Method

Broadcast and rake/roll (Deputy)

Seeding Dates

Year round in Hawai`i.

Inoculation

Not applicable.

Seed Cost

No information is available in this database on this topic.

Seed Availability

Readily available.

Days to Flowering

No information is available in this database on this topic.

Days to Maturity

No information is available in this database on this topic.

Seed Production

According to the FAO, two seed harvests of ‘Coastal Bermuda’ are made in the USA – in July and November. It is mowed into windrows, picked up, threshed by combines and cleared.

Seed Storage

No information is available in this database on this topic.

Growth Habit

Bermuda grass is a stoloniferous perennial, creeping by means of rhizomes and stolons (FAO).

Maximum Height

Bermuda grass grows to a maximum height of about 60 cm (24 in.) high (Bogdan).

Root System

Bermuda grass is deep rooted and its rhizomes penetrate the soil to a depth of 1 meter (39 in.) or more (Hanna).

Establishment

Bermuda grass is frequently established by sprigs or stolons. Sprig/stolon planting rate: 40-80 bu/ac at a maximum 3 ft. by 3 ft. spacing (NRCS). Plant into moist soil and roll (Hanna).

Maintenance

Graze closely to keep feeding value high. Fertilize with nitrogen. Renovate with plowing or disking when sod-bound (FAO). For information about Bermuda grass lawn maintenance, refer to Deputy. Thatch buildup should be removed when it is greater than 3/4 in thick. Periodic topdressing with compost promotes thatch decomposition (Deputy).

Mowing

  • Harvesting: Cut for hay or silage when Bermuda grass is 30-40 cm (12-15 in.) tall or after every 4-6 weeks growth (Hanna).
  • Grazing: Maintain stubble height of 5-10 cm (2-4 in.) under grazing or if cutting for hay (Hanna).
  • Lawns: refer to Deputy.

Incorporation

Not applicable. Not generally used as a green manure.

Harvesting

Bermuda should be cut for hay or silage when it is 30-40 cm tall (Hanna).

Equipment

No information is available in this database on this topic.

Uses

  • Grazing by ruminants
  • Cover crop in orchards
  • Erosion control
  • Popular turf grass

Mixtures

Bermuda grass hybrids are frequently grown with pasture legumes producing higher yields than pure grass alone without N. The herbage contains more protein, has a higher feeding value and can be more palatable. Bermuda grass is commonly grown with: Trifolium incarnatum L., Vicia villosa Roth., Trifolium repens, and Arachis glabrata (Bogdan).

Biomass

No information is available in this database on this topic.

N Contribution

Nitrogen concentrations of 2-3% have been reported on well-fertilized Bermuda grass (0.5-1.5% on inadequately fertilized grass). (Hanna).

Non-N Nutrient Contribution

No information is available in this database on this topic.

Effects on Water

No information is available in this database on this topic.

Effects on Soil

Bermuda grass roots have been reported to have an adverse effect on clover seed germination (Bogdan).

Effects on Livestock

Adequately fertilized Bermuda grass has N concentration between 2-3% (Hanna). Liveweight gain of cattle grazed on ‘Coastal’ Bermuda range from 200-300 kg/ha/yr when moderate rates of N and other fertilizers are applied (Bogdan).

Pest Effects, Insects

Armyworm (Spodoptera frugiperda) and spittlebug (Prosapia bicinata) are the major insects that attack Bermuda grass (Hanna). Deputy reports that in Hawai`i bermuda grass for lawn use is susceptible to webworm, lawn armyworm, bermudagrass mite, and nematodes. Certain cultivars are more resistant. To help control pests, provide adequate fertilization and defoliation that allows less than 8-cm growth (thatch) to accumulate (Hanna).

Pest Effects, Nematodes

Bermuda grass cultivar ‘NK-37’ is root-knot resistant (NRCS).

Pest Effects, Diseases

Rust and Helminthosporium leaf-spot are the major diseases of common Bermuda grass. The improved hybrids are resistant (Hanna).

Pest Effects, Weeds

Once established, provides good weed suppression (FAO).

Pest Effects, Vertebrates

No information is available in this database on this topic.


Uses in the Pacific Region

No information is available in this database on this topic.

Uses in Hawai`i

The Hawai`i Natural Resources Conservation Service Technical Guide, includes Bermuda grass (cv. ‘NK-37’ and common). Their specification describes Bermuda grass as follows:

  • Minimum seeding rate of 35 lbs. pure live seed/acre;
  • pH range from 5.0-8.0;
  • Planting rate 40-80 bu/ac (sprigs or stolons, maximum 3x3 ft. spacing),
  • Medium maintenance required;
  • Poor shade tolerance;
  • Very good drought tolerance;
  • Rainfall range of 20-80 inches;
  • Medium rate of establishment;
  • Elevation range from 0-3000 ft.

Dole Foods reports using Bermuda grass successfully with orchards as a filter strip on O`ahu (personal communication, Mike McLean).


References

Bogdan, A.V. 1977. Tropical Pasture and Fodder Plants. Longman Inc., New York. pp. 92-98.

Deputy, J., Hensley, D., Tavares, J., 1998. Bermudagrass TM-5. University of Hawaii at Manoa, Honolulu. 4 pp.

Evans, Dale O., Joy, Robert J., & Chia, C.L., 1988. Cover Crops for Orchards in Hawaii. Hawaii Institute of Tropical Agriculture and Human Resources, University of Hawaii at Manoa, Honolulu, Hawaii, United Stated. 16 pp.

FAO Grassland Index Web Site

Hanna, W.W., 1992. Cynodon dactylon (L.) Pers. In: ’t Mannetje, L. & Jones, R.M. (Editors): Plant Resources of South-East Asia No 4. Forages. Pudoc-DLO, Wageningen, the Netherlands. pp. 100-102.

USDA Natural Resources Conservation Service, Hawai`i Field Office Technical Guide, Section IV, Code 340 "Cover and Green Manure Crop" May 1992. Pacific Islands Area Field Office Technical Guide (eFOTG) - East Area


Black oat

Black Oat
Avena strigosa

Summary

  • Tropical and subtropical annual cereal
  • Promising crop for Hawai`i, currently under field trials
  • Used as animal forage, cover crop and green manure
  • Important cover crop on conservation tilled soybeans in Brazil
  • Has a long life cycle
  • Produces large amounts of biomass
  • Allelopathic residues from oats can suppress weeds and crops for a few weeks
  • Very rust resistant
  • Will reseed but easily controlled with herbicides
  • Can be a problem if grown before other cereals and not rotated
  • Can serve as a forage crop

Common Name

Black Oat

Scientific Name

The scientific name is Avena strigosa Schreb.

Cultivars

The only cultivar currently available in the USA is 'SoilSaver' which is a joint release between Auburn University and IAPAR (Institute of Agronoly of Parana, Brazil). It was selected for increased cold tolerance by Auburn Univerisity and the USDA-ARS National Soil Dynamics Laboratory in Auburn, AL. from a population from Brazil known as 'IAPAR-61- Ibiporã.'

Seed Description

SoilSaver seeds have on average a 100 liter weight of 45 kg, one thousand seed weight of 15 g, yield of 800 kg/ha, and a predominant clear color or slightly tan.

Seedling Description

No information is available in this database on this topic.

Mature Plant Description

Black Oats are tall and erect, with culms between 35 to 60 inches (89-152 cm) tall, varying with growing conditions. The mean plant height is 62 inches (158 cm), measured from soil surface to top of pannicle. Leaf blades are flat, about 4-8 mm wide, and numerous. The panical is one-sided, loose and open. Lemmas are scabrous toward the apex. Spikelets are usually 2-flowered, with florets not readily separating from the glumes. The awns are straight and dark. Reproduction is by sexual seed. In Alabama, fall plantings (November) result in seed ripening in mid May through early June.

Temperature

No information is available in this database on this topic.

Origin and Geographic Distribution

No information is available in this database on this topic.

Ecology

No information is available in this database on this topic.

Water

No information is available in this database on this topic.

Nutrients

Avoid excessive side dressing with nitrogen fertilizer to prevent lodging.

Soil pH

No information is available in this database on this topic.

Soil Type

No information is available in this database on this topic.

Shade Tolerance

No information is available in this database on this topic.

Salinity Tolerance

No information is available in this database on this topic.

Herbicide Sensitivity

No information is available in this database on this topic.

Life Cycle

No information is available in this database on this topic.

Seeding Rate

For Seed Production: 40 lb/A drilledFor Cover Crop: 50-90 lb/A

Seeding Depth

1/2 inch to 1 inch.

Seeding Method

Drill

Seeding Dates

Same as for common oat.

Inoculation

Not applicable.

Seed Cost

No information is available in this database on this topic.

Seed Availability

This is a new release known as 'SoilSaver' and is currently available from the USDA-ARS National Soil Dynamics Laboratory in Auburn, AL. It is available in Brazil as 'IAPAR-61-Ibiporã.'

Days to Flowering

No information is available in this database on this topic.

Days to Maturity

No information is available in this database on this topic.

Seed Production

No information is available in this database on this topic. Expected seed yields range from 800 to 1400 lb/acre.

Seed Storage

No information is available in this database on this topic.

Growth Habit

No information is available in this database on this topic.

Maximum Height

No information is available in this database on this topic.

Root System

No information is available in this database on this topic.

Establishment

Black Oat is reported to be susceptible to lodging and excessive side dressing with nitrogen fertilizer should be avoided.

Maintenance

No information is available in this database on this topic.

Mowing

No information is available in this database on this topic.

Incorporation

No information is available in this database on this topic.

Harvesting

No information is available in this database on this topic.

Equipment

No information is available in this database on this topic.

Uses

  • Hay or pasture
  • green manure
  • cover crop
  • erosion control

Mixtures

No information is available in this database on this topic.

Biomass

No information is available in this database on this topic.

N Contribution

No information is available in this database on this topic.

Non-N Nutrient Contribution

No information is available in this database on this topic.

Effects on Water

No information is available in this database on this topic.

Effects on Soil

No information is available in this database on this topic.

Effects on Livestock

Black oats can be used as a forage crop.

Pest Effects, Insects

Black Oats, like common oats, are prone to caterpillar and aphid infestations.

Pest Effects, Nematodes

In a greenhouse study of 17 plant species suitable for cover crops, black oat was shown to be resistant to root-knot nematode (Meloidogyne javanica).

Pest Effects, Diseases

Black Oats are reported to be moderately susceptible to leaf and stem rust and Helminthosporium.

Pest Effects, Weeds

Black oat has strong allelopathic activity, which is one reason it is used so much in no-till agriculture in S. America- provides excellent weed control. For cotton (which is sensitive to allelopathic activity) typically kill the cover 3 weeks before planting. (Reeves)

Pest Effects, Vertebrates

No information is available in this database on this topic.


Uses in the Pacific Region

None reported.

Uses in Hawai`i

Black oats are being field tested on a edible ginger trial on the island of Hawai`i.

References

1997. Aveia Preta IAPAR 61 Ibiporã. Instituto Agronomico do Parana. Londrina. Brazil. pp. 2.

1998. Managing Cover Crops Profitably, 2nd ed. Sustainable Agriculture Network, National Agricultural Library, Beltsville, USA. pp. 212.

Reeves, D. Wayne. 1999. Personal Communication/ Request for Review of Crop Variety and/or Germplasm Release. USDA-ARS NSDL and Department of Agronomy and Soils, Auburn University. USA.


Buckwheat

Buckwheat
Fagopyrum esculentum

Summer or cool season annual broadleaf grain

Uses

  • Biomass/organic matter source (Dry Matter: 2,000-3,000 lbs/ac/yr)
  • Very fast establishing cover
  • Quick regrowth
  • Weed suppression
  • Insectary plant
  • Topsoil conditioner
  • Phosphorous scavenger
  • Low fertility crop

Plant Highlights

  • EXCELLENT for suppressing weeds, for quick growth and establishment, for attracting beneficial insects
  • GOOD for increasing organic matter and improving soil structure,
  • FAIR for providing erosion control
  • POOR for taking up & storing excess N, for animal grazing (production, nutritional quality & palatability), for providing lasting residue (residue breaks down quickly)

Cultural Traits

  • Good heat tolerance
  • Poor drought tolerance
  • Fair shade tolerance
  • Fair flood tolerance
  • Fair tolerance to low fertility
  • pH range 4.5-6.5 (NRCS), prefers 5.0-7.0 (SAN)

Planting

Planting depth: 1/2 - 1.5 inches

Seeding Method

  • Drilled: Seed at 48-70 lb./A (1-1.4 bu/A)
  • Broadcast: Seed at 60-96 lb./A (1.2-1.5 bu/A)

Seed Cost: .28-.70 $/lb

Seed Availability: Readily available

Cultivars

Cultivars commonly recommended by the Hawai`i Natural Resources Conservation Service include: 'Japanese' and 'Common'.

Mixes

with sorghum-sudangrass hybrids, sunnhemp

Soil Improvements

  • Poor for loosening subsoil
  • Excellent at releasing P and K
  • Very good at loosening topsoil

Pest Control

  • Root knot nematode susceptible (NRCS)
  • Poor disease suppression
  • Very good allelopathic properties
  • Excellent weed suppression
  • Excellent for attracting beneficial insects

Management Attributes

  • Poor trafficability
  • Rapid establishment and growth ideal for short windows

Notes

  • Buckwheat attracts beneficials such as hover flies, predatory wasps, minute pirate bugs, insidious flower bugs, tachinid flies and lady beetles. To provide beneficial insect habitat, allow buckwheat to flower for at least 20 days (to allow minute pirate bugs to breed next generation).
  • Buckwheat is sensitive to herbicide residues from previous crops. To check for stunting or mortality, sow and water a small test plot.
  • To prevent buckwheat from becoming a weed in following crop, kill it within 7-10 days after flowering begins, before the first seeds harden and turn brown.

Uses in the Pacific Region

No information is available in this database on this topic.

Uses in Hawai`i

The Hawai`i Natural Resources Conservation Service Technical Guide Buckwheat (cv. 'Japanese' 'Common'). Their specification describes Buckwheat as follows:

  • Tolerates acid/low fertility soils
  • Minimum broadcast seeding rates of 60 lbs. pure live seed/acre;
  • pH range from 4.5-6.5;
  • Approximate growing time 30 days;
  • Approximate dry matter yield 1.5 tons/acre;
  • Approximate N content 18 lbs./T dry matter;
  • Add 20 lbs. of nitrogen/ton dry matter at plow down;
  • Optimum planting period year round at elevations between 0-4000 ft.

For More Information


References

1998. Managing Cover Crops Profitably, 2nd ed. Sustainable Agriculture Network, National Agricultural Library, Beltsville, USA. pp. 212.

USDA Natural Resources Conservation Service, Hawai`i Field Office Technical Guide, Section IV, Code 340 "Cover and Green Manure Crop" May 1992. Pacific Islands Area Field Office Technical Guide (eFOTG) - East Area


Carpet grass
     Broadleaf carpet grass

Broadleaf Carpet Grass
Axonopus compressus

Summary

  • Tropical and subtropical short perennial stoloniferous mat-like grass
  • In Hawai`i used for soil cover under orchard crops such as macadamia and coffee
  • Used for grazing in plantation crops (particularly coconut) but considered low quality forage
  • Used for soil cover under dense shade in established oil palm and rubber
  • Used as a cultivated lawn grass in Australia and USA
  • Used for erosion control applications
  • Excellent for weed suppression. Can become a troublesome weed itself.
  • Seed largely unavailable and must be sprigged
  • Alternate host of Rhizoctonia solani
  • Shade tolerant but grows in full sunlight also

Common Name

Its common name is broadleaf carpet grass or kulape (Tagalog) (Manidool).

Scientific Name

The scientific name is Axonopus compressus (Swartz) P. Beauv. (Manidool).

Cultivars

No information is available in this database on this topic.

Seed Description

Seeds are yellow-brown, elliptical, 1.25 mm long (Manidool).

Seedling Description

No information is available in this database on this topic.

Mature Plant Description

Broadleaf carpet grass is a short perennial, stoloniferous, dense mat-like spreading grass. Its leaves are 4-15 cm (11/2 - 6 in.) long, and 4-10 mm (1/6-3/8 in.) wide, broadly linear or lanceolate. It seldom reaches a height greater than 15 cm (6 in.) (FAO). There are usually two to four slender, dense spikes, 3-10 cm (1-4 in.) long. Spikelets are 2.2-2.8 mm long. The stems are slender, compressed, one to three noded (Bogdan). It is similar to A. affinis in most of its botanical characters but is more robust and stoloniferous (FAO).

NOTE: A. compresses (broadleaf carpet grass) and A. affinis (narrowleaf carpet grass) cannot be easily distinguished from one another by their general appearance because the leaf width can vary and hybridization occurs (Bogdan).

Temperature

Found in the tropics and subtropics (FAO).

Origin and Geographic Distribution

Broadleaf carpet grass occurs naturally in Mexico, Central America, tropical South America and the West Indies. It has been introduced into the southern eastern USA, Africa, southeastern Asia, the Philippines, Australia and the Pacific Islands. It has "naturalized" in many of these countries (Bogdan).

Ecology

Its natural habitat is subhumid to humid woodland and savannah, flourishing in moist soils (FAO).

Water

Broadleaf carpet grass requires a minimum rainfall of 775 mm (about 30 in.) (FAO). It cannot withstand waterlogging or flooding (Bogdan).

Nutrients

Broadleaf carpet grass often outcompetes other grasses on infertile soils (Bogdan). It does respond to fertilizer applications (Manidool).

Soil pH

Broadleaf carpet grass tolerates soil pH range 4.0 - 7.0 (NRCS).

Soil Type

Broadleaf carpet grass grows on a range of soil types, particularly sandy soils (Manidool) and fertile sandy loams (Bogdan). It is commonly found on sandy soils where it outcompetes other grasses as fertility declines (Bogdan).

Shade Tolerance

Broadleaf carpet grass is moderately to very shade tolerant but also grows well in full sunlight (Manidool).

Salinity Tolerance

No information is available in this database on this topic.

Herbicide Sensitivity

Manidool reports that broadleaf carpet grass is controlled as a weed by spraying with 1.1 kg MSMA + 0.6 kg sodium chlorate in 273 liters water.

Life Cycle

Young plants start growth in a circular patch. With little competition, the patch may reach a size of up to 1 meter in diameter in one season. It crowds out weeds and grasses and forms a dense mat-like cover. It flowers all year round, although little seed is produced in some environments (Manidool).

Seeding Rate

  • 6 kg/ha (Manidool, FAO). Not usually seeded.
  • In Hawaii, broadleaf carpet grass is usually sprigged due to lack of seed sources.

Seeding Depth

Sow on the surface and roll after planting (FAO).

Seeding Method

Sow on the surface and roll after planting. It can be surface sown through a drill (FAO).

Seeding Dates

Year round in Hawai`i.

Inoculation

Not applicable. It is reported to be able to fix atmospheric N through associated microorganisms (Manidool).

Seed Cost

No information is available in this database on this topic.

Seed Availability

Not readily available.

Days to Flowering

No information is available in this database on this topic.

Days to Maturity

No information is available in this database on this topic.

Seed Production

No information is available in this database on this topic.

Seed Storage

No information is available in this database on this topic.

Growth Habit

Broadleaf carpet grass is a short spreading grass which generally reaches a height of about 15 cm, forming a dense mat over the ground surface (FAO).

Maximum Height

Broadleaf carpet grass grows to a maximum height of about 20-50 cm (8-20 in.) (Manidool).

Root System

No information is available in this database on this topic.

Establishment

Broadleaf carpet grass is usually vegetatively propagated by planting stolons (Manidool). Planting sprigs 2 ft by 2 ft or closer is recommended by Evans in Hawai`i. NRCS recommends a planting rate or 40-80 bu/ac (sprigs or stolons, maximum 3x3 ft. spacing).

Maintenance

No information is available in this database on this topic.

Mowing

When used as a lawn grass, it should be mown frequently (Manidool).

Incorporation

Not applicable. Not generally used as a green manure.

Harvesting

Not applicable. Not generally harvested.

Equipment

No information is available in this database on this topic.

Uses

  • Soil cover under macadamia and coffee in Hawai`i
  • Grazing in plantation crops (particularly coconut) but a low quality forage
  • Soil cover under dense shade in established oil palm and rubber
  • Cultivated lawn grass in Australia and USA
  • Erosion control applications
  • Weed suppression. Can become a troublesome weed itself.

Mixtures

Broadleaf carpet grass will grow in association with white clover (Trifolium repens) and Desmodium triflorum. It will gradually invade Cynodon dactylon in lawns (FAO). In Hawai`i it is reported to combine well with trefoil, Desmodium spp. and white clover (Evans).

Biomass

No information is available in this database on this topic.

N Contribution

Nitrogen concentrations of A. compressus range between 1-2% (Manidool). CSIRO workers have shown that it has an active nitrogenase system fixing 13 kg N/ha/day over a 12 week summer growing period (FAO).

Non-N Nutrient Contribution

No information is available in this database on this topic.

Effects on Water

No information is available in this database on this topic.

Effects on Soil

No information is available in this database on this topic.

Effects on Livestock

Broadleaf carpet grass is used for grazing in plantation crops (particularly coconuts) (Manidool). The quality of herbage is considered to be comparatively low and declines with plant age (Bogdan). Frequent grazing is preferred to maintain palatability and quality. It is usually grazed by tethered or freely grazing animals and rarely used in a cut-and-carry system. With mixed fertilizer applications rates of 300 kg/ha, it has yielded up to 5 t/ha of DM. In Brazil, Zebu steers grazing over 672 days achieved an average daily gain of 0.18-kg (Manidool).

Pest Effects, Insects

No information is available in this database on this topic.

Pest Effects, Nematodes

Burrowing, reniform, and root knot susceptible (personal communication, Robert Joy).

Pest Effects, Diseases

Alternate host of Rhizoctonia solani (Manidool).

Pest Effects, Weeds

Excellent for weed suppression but can become a troublesome weed itself. It often invades run-down old sown unfertilized pastures (Bogdan).

Pest Effects, Vertebrates

No information is available in this database on this topic.


Uses in the Pacific Region

  • Broadleaf carpet grass invasion of old Brachiaria mutica pastures have been reported in Fiji (Bogdan).
  • In Fiji it is considered a useful feed, especially if Mimosa pudica (sensitive plant) is grown with it (FAO).

Uses in Hawai`i

The Hawai`i Natural Resources Conservation Service Technical Guide broadleaf carpet grass. Their specification describes broadleaf carpet grass as follows:

  • Tolerates acid/low fertility soils;
  • pH range from 4.0-7.0;
  • Planting rate 40-80 bu/ac (sprigs or stolons, maximum 3x3 ft. spacing);
  • Low maintenance required;
  • Good shade tolerance;
  • Fair drought tolerance;
  • Rainfall range of 50+ inches;
  • Medium rate of establishment;
  • Elevation range from 0-3000 ft.

The Natural Resources Conservation Service Plant Materials Center has been working with an accession (9037941) for advanced testing for use as a ground cover in shady conditions, primarily orchard ground cover and more specifically for macadamia nut orchards. It will grow in full sun and should have applications for waterways, critical area plantings and other erosion prone areas. It makes a very acceptable turf. (R. Joy)

Several farmers in the Kona region report using broadleaf carpet grass with white clover under coffee. There are concerns (but no reports) about the carpet grass and coffee both being susceptible to root knot nematode.

Evans reports carpet grass being used successfully in Kona by coffee growers, with the more wear-resistant tropic lalo (Paspalum hieronymii) being used for access roads and equipment-bearing areas.

Dr. Joe DeFrank, UH Manoa, has a cover crop demonstration site using broadleaf carpet grass as a living mulch in papaya trials.


References

Bogdan, A.V. 1977. Tropical Pasture and Fodder Plants. Longman Inc., New York. Pp.45-47.

Evans, Dale O., Joy, Robert J., & Chia, C.L., 1988. Cover Crops for Orchards in Hawaii. Hawaii Institute of Tropical Agriculture and Human Resources, University of Hawaii at Manoa, Honolulu, Hawaii, United Stated. 16 pp.

FAO Grassland Index Web Site

Manidool, C. 1992. Axonopus compressus (Swartz) P. Beauv. In: 't Mannetje, L. & Jones, R.M. (Editors): Plant Resources of South-East Asia No 4. Forages. Pudoc-DLO, Wageningen, the Netherlands. pp. 53-54.

USDA Natural Resources Conservation Service, Hawai`i Field Office Technical Guide, Section IV, Code 340 "Cover and Green Manure Crop" May 1992. Pacific Islands Area Field Office Technical Guide (eFOTG) - East Area


     Narrowleaf carpet grass

Narrowleaf Carpet Grass
Axonopus affinis

Summary

  • Tropical and subtropical short perennial stoloniferous mat-like grass
  • In Hawai`i used for soil cover under orchard crops such as macadamia and coffee in Hawai`i
  • Used as a cultivated lawn grass in Australia and USA
  • Used for erosion control applications
  • Considered a low-quality pasture which indicates declining fertility
  • Excellent for weed suppression. Can become a troublesome weed itself.
  • Seed readily available
  • More frost tolerant than broadleaf carpet grass (A. compressus) and used in cooler/higher areas

Common Name

Its common name is narrowleaf carpet grass, carpet grass, mat grass (Bodgan).

Scientific Name

The scientific name is Axonopus affinis Chase (Bogdan).

Cultivars

No information is available in this database on this topic. FAO reports no cultivars recorded.

Seed Description

No information is available in this database on this topic.

Seedling Description

Seedlings are reported to be very vigorous (FAO).

Mature Plant Description

Narrowleaf carpet grass is a perennial, stoloniferous, short spreading grass. Its leaves are 5-20 cm (2-8 in.) long and 2-6 mm (1/16 - 1/4 in.) wide. It ranges in height from 25-75 cm, forming a dense mat over the ground surface (FAO). Spikelets are 2.0-2.2 mm long (Bogdan). The fertile floret is white to pale yellow colored (FAO).

NOTE: A. compressus (broadleaf carpet grass) and A. affinis (narrowleaf carpet grass) cannot be easily distinguished from one another by their general appearance because the leaf width can vary and hybridization occurs (Bogdan).

Temperature

Found in the tropics and subtropics (FAO). A. affinis is slightly more frost tolerant than broadleaf carpet grass (A. compressus) and therefore also found in the cooler regions of these areas (Bogdan).

Origin and Geographic Distribution

Narrowleaf carpet grass is thought to have originated in the American tropics (southern United States, the West Indies or Central America). It is now distributed throughout the tropical and subtropical regions of America, Africa, Asia, Australia and the Pacific Islands (FAO).

Ecology

According to the FAO, its natural habitat is the subhumid and humid woodland and savannah.

Water

Narrowleaf carpet grass requires a minimum rainfall of 750 mm/yr (about 30 in/yr) but is more drought resistant than broadleaf carpet grass (A. compressus). It prefers moist soil but does not withstand prolonged flooding or permanently swampy conditions (FAO).

Nutrients

Narrowleaf carpet grass can compete well on infertile soils (Bogdan) and its presence in a pasture indicates declining soil fertility throughout the tropics (FAO). It does respond to fertilizer applications, particularly N, but its efficiency of N use is low compared with other pastures (FAO).

Soil pH

Narrowleaf carpet grass tolerates soil pH range 4.0 - 7.0 (NRCS).

Soil Type

Narrowleaf carpet grass grows on a range of soil types, particularly sandy soils (FAO).

Shade Tolerance

Fair shade tolerance (NRCS).

Salinity Tolerance

No information is available in this database on this topic.

Herbicide Sensitivity

No information is available in this database on this topic.

Life Cycle

No information is available in this database on this topic.

Seeding Rate

  • 5-15 kg/ha (Bogdan).
  • Minimum seeding rate 40 lbs. pure live seed/acre (NRCS).

Seeding Depth

Surface sow with minimum cover (FAO).

Seeding Method

Broadcast and harrow or roll (FAO).

Seeding Dates

Year round in Hawai`i.

Inoculation

Not applicable.

Seed Cost

No information is available in this database on this topic.

Seed Availability

Readily available.

Days to Flowering

No information is available in this database on this topic.

Days to Maturity

No information is available in this database on this topic.

Seed Production

Narrowleaf carpet grass produces seed readily, the seed can be readily harvested, and in the USA combine-harvesting in practiced (Bogdan). The FAO reports that seed is harvested mechanically in Mississippi and Louisiana, USA.

Seed Storage

No information is available in this database on this topic.

Growth Habit

Narrowleaf carpet grass is a short spreading grass that reaches a height ranging between 25-75 cm (about 10-30 in.), forming a dense mat over the ground surface (FAO).

Maximum Height

Narrowleaf carpet grass grows to a maximum height of about 75 cm (30 in.) (FAO).

Root System

Narrowleaf carpet grass has a shallow root system (96% of roots in the 0-5 cm layer) (FAO).

Establishment

Narrowleaf carpet grass can be seeded or vegetatively propagated by planting stolons (Bogdan).

Maintenance

Apply 224 kg/ha (about 200 lb/ac) superphosphate at sowing and annually (FAO).

Mowing

No information is available in this database on this topic.

Grazing: Narrowleaf carpet grass should be kept in the vegetative state by frequent grazing and periodically renovated and fertilized with N, especially in spring to prolong its feeding value (FAO).

Incorporation

Not applicable. Not generally used as a green manure.

Harvesting

Not applicable. Not generally harvested for hay because when high enough to harvest, it is low in nutritive value (FAO).

Equipment

No information is available in this database on this topic.

Uses

  • Soil cover under macadamia and coffee in Hawai`i
  • Cultivated lawn grass in Australia and USA
  • Erosion control applications
  • Weed suppression. Can become a troublesome weed itself.

Mixtures

In low fertility conditions, narrowleaf carpet grass tends to outcompete legumes and invade Paspalum dilatatum pastures and Cynodon dactylon lawns. Few legumes can compete with its dense sod (FAO). It tends to become suppressed by companion grasses on good or well-fertilized soil (Bogdan).

Biomass

No information is available in this database on this topic.

N Contribution

No information is available in this database on this topic.

Non-N Nutrient Contribution

No information is available in this database on this topic.

Effects on Water

No information is available in this database on this topic.

Effects on Soil

No information is available in this database on this topic.

Effects on Livestock

A. affinis does not provide high quality pasture. Animal live-weight gains from narrowleaf carpet grass are low compared with other pasture species and live-weight losses occur in winter. Live-weight gains from pure pasture alone have been 84-98 kg/ha per year unfertilized. After seed set crude protein may fall as low as 4 or 5 percent. It is considered a good horse feed because horses eat the masses of seed-heads avoided by cattle (FAO).

Pest Effects, Insects

No information is available in this database on this topic.

Pest Effects, Nematodes

No information is available in this database on this topic.

Pest Effects, Diseases

FAO reports no major diseases.

Pest Effects, Weeds

Excellent for weed suppression but can become a troublesome weed itself. It often invades run-down old sown unfertilized pastures (Bogdan).

Pest Effects, Vertebrates

No information is available in this database on this topic.


Uses in the Pacific Region

No information is available in this database on this topic.

Uses in Hawai`i

The Hawai`i Natural Resources Conservation Service Technical Guide includes narrowleaf carpet grass. Their specification describes narrowleaf carpet grass as follows:

  • Tolerates acid/low fertility soils;
  • Minimum seeding rate of 40 lbs. pure live seed/acre;
  • pH range from 4.0-7.0;
  • Planting rate 40-80 bu/ac (sprigs or stolons, maximum 3x3 ft. spacing);
  • Medium maintenance required;
  • Fair shade tolerance;
  • Poor drought tolerance;
  • Rainfall range of 50+ inches;
  • Medium rate of establishment
  • Elevation range from 0-2000 ft.

Evans reports carpet grass being used successfully in Kona by coffee growers, with the more wear-resistant Tropic lalo (Paspalum hieronymii) being used for access roads and equipment-bearing areas.


References

Bogdan, A.V. 1977. Tropical Pasture and Fodder Plants. Longman Inc., New York. Pp.44-45.

Evans, Dale O., Joy, Robert J., & Chia, C.L., 1988. Cover Crops for Orchards in Hawaii. Hawaii Institute of Tropical Agriculture and Human Resources, University of Hawaii at Manoa, Honolulu, Hawaii, United Stated. pp. 14.

FAO Grassland Index Web Site

USDA Natural Resources Conservation Service, Hawai`i Field Office Technical Guide, Section IV, Code 340 "Cover and Green Manure Crop" May 1992. Pacific Islands Area Field Office Technical Guide (eFOTG) - East Area


Cereal rye

Rye
Secale cereale

  • Rye CTAHR Fact Sheet (downloadable .pdf)

Also known as: cereal rye, winter rye, grain rye

Cool season annual cereal grain

Uses

  • Biomass/organic matter source (Dry Matter: 3,000-10,000 lbs/ac/yr)
  • Weed suppression
  • Pest suppression
  • Nurse crop in combination with slow-establishing legumes
  • Nutrient catch crop (high N user)
  • Windbreak

Plant Highlights

  • EXCELLENT for taking up & storing excess N, for increasing organic matter and improving soil structure, for providing erosion control, for suppressing weeds, for quick growth and establishment, for providing lasting residue
  • GOOD for animal grazing (production, nutritional quality & palatability)

Cultural Traits

  • Good heat tolerance
  • Very good drought tolerance
  • Very good shade tolerance
  • Good flood tolerance
  • Excellent tolerance of low fertility
  • pH range 5.0-7.0 (SAN)

Planting

Planting depth: 3/4 - 2 inches

Seeding Method

  • Drilled: Seed at 60-120 lb./A (1-2 bu/A)
  • Broadcast: Seed at 90-160 lb./A (1.5-3.0 bu/A)

Seed Cost: .05-.20 $/lb

Seed Availability: Readily available

Cultivars

  • Cultivars commonly recommended by the Hawai`i Natural Resources Conservation Service include: 'Wrens Abruzzi'.
  • Work by Evensen, Osgood, and El-Swaify suggests that the 'Danko' and 'Elbon' cultivars are suitable for cover crops in Hawai`i.

Mixes

with legumes, grasses, or other cereal grains

Soil Improvements

  • Fair for loosening subsoil
  • Very good at releasing P and K
  • Excellent at loosening topsoil

Pest Control

  • Good for suppressing nematodes
  • Good for disease suppression
  • Excellent allelopathic properties
  • Excellent weed suppression
  • Fair for attracting beneficial insects

Management Attributes

  • Very good trafficability
  • Rapid establishment and growth ideal for short windows

Notes

  • Cereal rye can tie up nitrogen as its residue decomposes. Kill rye early while it is still succulent to minimize N tie up. Alternately, increase your N application or plant a legume.
  • Cereal rye has allelopathic effects (which helps suppress weeds) that last about 30 days. Wait 3-4 weeks before planting small seeded crops such as carrots or onions.
  • Cereal rye can become a weed if tilled before it reaches 8 inches high or seedheads are allowed to mature.
  • Insect pests can often be reduced by using cereal rye crop rotations.

Uses in the Pacific Region

No information is available in this database on this topic.

Uses in Hawai`i

The Hawai`i Natural Resources Conservation Service Technical Guide includes Rye grain (cv. 'Wrens Abruzzi'). Their specification describes Rye grain as follows:

  • Minimum broadcast seeding rates of 70 lbs. pure live seed/acre;
  • pH range from 5.5-7.0;
  • Approximate growing time 90 days;
  • Approximate dry matter yield 1 ton/acre;
  • Approximate N content 18 lbs./T dry matter;
  • Add 20 lbs. of nitrogen/ton dry matter at plow down;
  • Optimum planting period year round at elevations over 1500 ft.
  • Optimum planting period fall/winter at elevations below 1500 ft.

Evensen, Osgood and El-Swaify conducted five years of research with small grains as cover crops on sugarcane plantations for erosion and weed control. Variety trials for 51 cultivars of oat, barley, wheat, ryegrass and rye grain on Hawai`i, Molokai, and Lanai were compared. Of the Rye grain trials, varieties 'Danko' and 'Elbon' were the most promising (in terms of vigorous growth, rapid soil cover, weed suppression, low plant height, and lack of flowering). This information has applications for pineapple, coffee and tropical fruit tree orchards.

For More Information

UC Davis On-line Cover Crop Index


References

Evensen, C.I., Osgood, R.V., & El-Swaify, S.A. Small grain cover crops in Hawaii for erosion and weed control. A poster paper presented at the conference on "Cover Crops, Soil Quality and Ecosystems", March 12-14,1997.

1998. Managing Cover Crops Profitably, 2nd ed. Sustainable Agriculture Network, National Agricultural Library, Beltsville, USA. pp. 212.

USDA Natural Resources Conservation Service, Hawai`i Field Office Technical Guide, Section IV, Code 340 "Cover and Green Manure Crop" May 1992. Pacific Islands Area Field Office Technical Guide (eFOTG) - East Area


Cowpea

Cowpea
Vigna unguiculata

Also known as: blackeyed peas, southern peas

Subtropical and tropical annual legume

Uses

  • Nitrogen source (100-150 lb. N/ac)
  • Biomass/organic matter source (Dry Matter: 2,500-4,500 lbs/ac/yr)
  • Weed suppression
  • Insectary plant
  • Companion crop in orchards, vineyards, corn
  • Drought tolerant
  • Food, seed, forage, or hay crop

Plant Highlights

  • EXCELLENT for providing erosion control, for suppressing weeds
  • VERY GOOD for quick growth and establishment
  • GOOD for increasing organic matter and improving soil structure, for animal grazing (production, nutritional quality & palatability)
  • FAIR for taking up & storing excess N, for providing lasting residue.

Cultural Traits

  • Excellent heat tolerance
  • Very good drought tolerance
  • Good shade tolerance
  • Fair flood tolerance
  • Excellent tolerance to low fertility
  • pH range 5.5-6.5

Planting

  • Planting depth: 1 - 11/2 inches
  • Inoculant Type: cowpeas, lespedeza

Seeding Method

  • Drilled: Seed at 30-90 lb./A
  • Broadcast: Seed at 70-120 lb./A

Seed Cost: .50 $/lb

Seed Availability: Readily available

Cultivars

Cultivars commonly recommended by the Hawai`i Natural Resources Conservation Service include: 'Mississippi Pinkeye Purple Hull' which is reported to be root knot nematode resistant, burrowing nematode susceptible.

Mixes

with sorghum-sudangrass hybrid, buckwheat

Soil Improvements

  • Good for loosening subsoil
  • Good at releasing P and K
  • Very good at loosening topsoil

Pest Control

  • Poor for suppressing nematodes
  • Poor for disease suppression
  • Poor allelopathic properties
  • Excellent weed suppression
  • Very good for attracting beneficial insects

Management Attributes

  • Poor trafficability
  • Rapid establishment and growth ideal for short windows

Notes

  • Cowpeas germinate quickly and are easy to establish. They thrive in hot moist climates.
  • To control disease and nematode problems, cowpeas should be rotated with four to five years of crops that are not hosts.
  • Once cowpeas form pods, they may attract stinkbugs. Flail mowing or incorporating cowpeas at pod set or plan crop rotations with resistant crops.
  • Cowpeas survive drought well once established.
  • Mowing stops vegetative growth but may not kill plants without shallow tilling.
  • Cowpeas have extrafloral nectaries that attract beneficial insects such as wasps, honeybees, lady beetles, ants and soft-winged beetles.

Uses in the Pacific Region

No information is available in this database on this topic.

Uses in Hawai'i

The Hawai`i Natural Resources Conservation Service Technical Guide includes Cowpea (cv. 'Mississippi Pinkeye Purple Hull'). Their specification describes Cowpea as follows:

  • Minimum broadcast seeding rates of 60 lbs. pure live seed/acre;
  • pH range from 5.5-8.3;
  • Inoculant group: cowpea;
  • Approximate growing time 90 days;
  • Approximate dry matter yield 2 tons/acre;
  • Approximate N content 59 lbs./T dry matter;
  • Optimum planting period year round at elevations from 0-1000 ft.;
  • Optimum planting period spring/summer at elevations from 0-2000 ft.

For More information

UC Davis On-line Cover Crop Index

FAO Web Site


References

1998. Managing Cover Crops Profitably, 2nd ed. Sustainable Agriculture Network, National Agricultural Library, Beltsville, USA. pp. 212.

USDA Natural Resources Conservation Service, Hawai`i Field Office Technical Guide, Section IV, Code 340 "Cover and Green Manure Crop" May 1992. Pacific Islands Area Field Office Technical Guide (eFOTG) - East Area


Lablab

Lablab
Lablab purpureus

Summary

  • Tropical climbing or erect annual or short lived perennial legume
  • Used primarily as a vegetable food crop in South-East Asia
  • Also used for fodder, hay, silage, green manure and cover crop
  • Recommended in Hawai`i for green manure on vegetable crops
  • Tolerates acid/low fertility soils
  • Drought resistant once established
  • Adapted to a wide range of soil types
  • Slow early growth: subject to weeds during establishment
  • Short lived
  • Root knot nematode susceptible

Common Name

Its common name is Lablab, hyacinth bean (Bogdan).

Scientific Name

The scientific name is Lablab purpureus (L.) Sweet (Bogdan). Synonyms: Dolichos lablab L. (Shivashankar & Kulkarni).

Cultivars

Lablab cultivar 'Rongai' was introduced from the Rongai area of Kenya to subtropical and tropical Australia. It is a white flowering, vigorous productive cultivar (Bogdan).

Seed Description

Seeds vary in color (white, red, brown, or black with a long white aril around a third of the seed) and in size (Bogdan). There are usually 3-6 ovoid seeds per pod (Shivashankar & Kulkarni).

Seedling Description

No information is available in this database on this topic.

Mature Plant Description

Lablab is a climbing or erect annual or short lived perennial. It grows up to 1 meter (3.2 ft.) high with longer stems in climbing types (up to 6 meters or 20 ft. tall). The leaves are pubescent, trifoliate, 3-15 cm (1-6 in.) long and 1.5-14 cm wide. Flowers are purple or white, 4-20 cm long and 1.2-1.6 cm in diameter, on peduncles that are 2-40 cm long (Bogdan). Pods vary in shape and in color, flat or inflated, 5-20 cm long by 1-5 cm wide (Shivashankar & Kulkarni).

Lablab is a highly variable plant. Some distinguish subspecies, varieties, or cultivar groups: Lablab, Ensiformis, and Bengalensis (Shivashankar & Kulkarni).

Temperature

Lablab requires temperatures from 18°C - 30°C (64.4°F - 86°F) to grow well. The minimum temperature for growth is 3°C (37.4°F). It has low frost tolerance but will survive light frosts which will damage the leaves (Shivashankar & Kulkarni).

Origin and Geographic Distribution

Lablab is thought to be indigenous to India, South East Asia, or Africa. Now it has been cultivated and distributed throughout the tropics and subtropics. It is most popular in India, South East Asia, Egypt and the Sudan (Shivashankar & Kulkarni).

Ecology

No information is available in this database on this topic.

Water

Lablab prefers rainfalls between 750 to 2500 mm/year (about 30-100 in.). Once it is established, it is drought tolerant (due to a deep taproot) and is reported to grow in areas with 200-2500 mm (about 8-100 in.) rainfall/year. It does not tolerate waterlogging (Shivashankar & Kulkarni).

Nutrients

Lablab is not generally fertilized. In poor sandy soils, molybdenized superphosphate at 250-500 kg/ha (223-446 lb/ac) with potash is recommended. Garden cultivars are heavily manured in India (Shivashankar & Kulkarni).

Soil pH

Lablab grows at a pH between 5.0-7.8 (Shivashankar & Kulkarni). pH range from 4.5 - 6.5 (NRCS).

Soil Type

With good drainage, lablab will grow on a wide range of soils from deep sands to heavy clays (Shivashankar & Kulkarni).

Shade Tolerance

No information is available in this database on this topic.

Salinity Tolerance

Lablab is not tolerant of brackish water (Shivashankar & Kulkarni).

Herbicide Sensitivity

No information is available in this database on this topic.

Life Cycle

Germination generally occurs within 5 days. The seeds can remain viable for 2-3 years with an 85-95% germination rate. The growth period ranges between 75 to 300 days. Fruiting on some cultivars begins within 60-65 days of sowing and continues for 90-100 days. Mature seeds are harvested between 150-210 days after sowing (which varies with cultivar). The flowers are cross pollinated (Shivashankar & Kulkarni).

Seeding Rate

  • 7-10 kg/ha (Shivashankar & Kulkarni).
  • 10-18 kg/ha (Bogdan).
  • 5-7 kg/ha drilled, 8-10 kg/ha broadcast (FAO).
  • Minimum seeding rate: 60 lbs. PLS/acre (NRCS).

Seeding Depth

5 cm (about 2 inches) (Shivashankar & Kulkarni).

Seeding Method

  • Broadcast and cover lightly with soil (Shivashankar & Kulkarni).
  • Drill into a well-prepared seedbed (FAO).

Seeding Dates

Year round in Hawai`i at elevations between 0-3000 ft (NRCS).

Inoculation

  • Lablab grows well in the countries of its origin without inoculation. However in Australia the plants do not nodulate naturally and a suitable cowpea-group strain of Rhizobium is used (Bogdan).
  • Inoculant group: lablab specific (NRCS).

Seed Cost

No information is available in this database on this topic.

Seed Availability

Readily available.

Days to Flowering

No information is available in this database on this topic.

Days to Maturity

The growth period ranges between 75 to 300 days. Fruiting on some cultivars begins within 60-65 days of sowing and continues for 90-100 days. Mature seeds are harvested between 150-210 days after sowing (Shivashankar & Kulkarni).

Seed Production

Lablab is generally hand picked as pods ripen. Once the majority of the plants reach full maturity, they are cut down close to the ground with a sickle, left to dry and then threshed (Shivashankar & Kulkarni).

Seed Storage

Dry (reduce moisture content to about 10%), clean, and store. In South East Asia they are stored in earthenware or metallic containers with 5-cm. layer of sand over them as protection (Shivashankar & Kulkarni).

Growth Habit

Lablab is bushy or a climbing branching herbaceous perennial with a taproot (Shivashankar & Kulkarni).

Maximum Height

Some climbing varieties of lablab grows to a maximum height of 6 meters (20 ft.) tall (Shivashankar & Kulkarni).

Root System

Lablab has a well-developed taproot with many laterals and well-developed adventitious roots (Shivashankar & Kulkarni).

Establishment

By seed.

Maintenance

No information is available in this database on this topic

Mowing

Mowing or grazing can begin 7-10 weeks after sowing. It can withstand close severe grazing (Bogdan) if only the leaves are taken (FAO).

Incorporation

No information is available in this database on this topic.

Harvesting

Lablab pods are generally harvested by hand when the seeds are three quarters ripe. For seed production, they are hand picked when ripe until the majority of the plants reach maturity. Then they are cut, dried and threshed (Shivashankar & Kulkarni).

Equipment

No information is available in this database on this topic.

Uses

  • Used primarily as a vegetable food crop in South-East Asia but also used for fodder, hay, silage, green manure and cover crop
  • Grown as a cover crop in rotation with sorghum and cotton
  • Used in orchards for an organic mulch (should be cut frequently)
  • Recommended in Hawai`i for green manure on vegetable crops
  • Intercropped with maize
  • Sown with maize and sorghum in alternate rows for silage (produces good silage especially when mixed with sorghum)

Mixtures / Intercropping

Lablab is grown as a field crop either alone or intercropped with a cereal (maize). In India it is grown with Eleusine coracana (Shivashankar & Kulkarni).

Biomass

Approximate dry matter yield 2.5 tons/acre (NRCS).

N Contribution

  • Approximate N content 50-lbs./T dry matter (NRCS).
  • Estimated 220 kg/ha N (FAO).

Non-N Nutrient Contribution

No information is available in this database on this topic.

Effects on Water

No information is available in this database on this topic.

Effects on Soil

No information is available in this database on this topic.

Effects on Livestock

Lablab is a main fodder crop in Kenya, Rhodesia and the Sudan. Crude protein in herbage is reported to range between 12.7 and 14.1% and reach over 25% in the dry matter. Organic matter digestibility declines over time (61.3% in younger plants to 48.3% in older ones). Milk production from lablab is usually higher than from grasses (Bogdan). A feedy flavor in milk is reported with lablab feed, diminished to acceptable levels with pasteurization (Bogdan, FAO). Bloat may occur if livestock is given a diet solely of lablab (FAO).

Pest Effects, Insects

Pod boring insects such as Adisura atkinsoni are troublesome pests. A. atkinsoni has been controlled experimentally by strain HB-III of Bacterium cereus var. thuringensis. The gram caterpillar (Heliothis armigera), the plume moth (Exelastis atomosa) and the spotted podborer (Maruca testulalis) are of economic importance. Bruchid beetles (Callosobruchus spp.) attack during storage as well as in the field (Shivashankar & Kulkarni).

Pest Effects, Nematodes

FAO reports that Lablab roots are attached by several nematodes: Helicotylenchus dihystera, Meloidogyne hapla and M. incognita.

Pest Effects, Diseases

Anthracnose (caused by Colletotrichum lindemuthianum), Leaf-spot (caused by Cercospora dolichi) and powdery mildew (caused by Leveillula taurica var. macrospora) have been reported (Shivashankar & Kulkarni).

Pest Effects, Weeds

Lablab competes well with weeds once it is established, but early growth is slow and weed control may be needed at that stage (FAO).

Pest Effects, Vertebrates

No information is available in this database on this topic.


Uses in the Pacific Region

No information is available in this database on this topic.

Uses in Hawai`i

The Hawai`i Natural Resources Conservation Service Technical Guide includes Lablab (cv. 'Rongai'). Their specification describes Lablab as follows:

  • Tolerates acid/low fertility soils
  • Minimum seeding rates of 60 lbs. pure live seed/acre;
  • pH range from 4.5-6.5;
  • Inoculant group: lablab specific;
  • Approximate growing time 60 days;
  • Approximate dry matter yield 2.5 tons/acre;
  • Approximate N content 50 lbs./T dry matter;
  • Optimum planting period year round at elevations between 0-3000 ft.

Evans reports that Lablab has potential as a cover crop in Hawai`i.


References

Bogdan, A.V. 1977. Tropical Pasture and Fodder Plants. Longman Inc., New York. pp. 367-369.

Evans, Dale O., Joy, Robert J., & Chia, C.L., 1988. Cover Crops for Orchards in Hawaii. Hawaii Institute of Tropical Agriculture and Human Resources, University of Hawaii at Manoa, Honolulu, Hawaii, United Stated. 16 pp.

FAO Web Site

Shivashankar, G., & Kulkarni, R.S., 1989. Lablab purpureus (L.) Sweet. In: van der Maesen, L.J.G. & Somaatmadja, S. (Editors): Plant Resources of South-East Asia No 1. Pulses. Pudoc/Prosea, Wageningen, the Netherlands. pp. 48-50.

USDA Natural Resources Conservation Service, Hawai`i Field Office Technical Guide, Section IV, Code 340 "Cover and Green Manure Crop" May 1992. Pacific Islands Area Field Office Technical Guide (eFOTG) - East Area


Oat

Oat
Avena sativa

Also known as: spring oats

Cool season annual cereal

Uses

  • Low cost biomass/organic matter source (dry matter: 2,000-10,000 lbs/ac/yr)
  • Companion crop
  • Smother crop for weed suppression
  • Nurse crop in combination with slow-establishing legumes
  • Nutrient catch crop (excess N, some P and K)
  • Winter cover crop
  • Hay, straw, forage or grain crop
  • Fast erosion control

Plant Highlights

  • EXCELLENT for suppressing weeds, for quick growth and establishment
  • VERY GOOD for taking up and storing excess N, for providing erosion control
  • GOOD for increasing organic matter and improving soil structure, for animal grazing (production, nutritional quality & palatability), for providing lasting residue

Cultural Traits

  • Fair heat tolerance
  • Fair drought tolerance
  • Fair shade tolerance
  • Good flood tolerance
  • Good tolerance to low fertility
  • pH range 5.5-7.0 (NRCS), prefers 4.5-6.5 (SAN)

Planting

Planting depth: 1/2 - 2 inches (Shallow seeding in moist soil provides rapid emergence and reduces root rot disease)

Seeding Method

  • Drilled: Seed at 80-110 lb./A (2.5-3.5 bu/A)
  • Broadcast: Seed at 110-140 lb./A (3.5-4.5 bu/A)

Seed Cost: .10-.20 $/lb.

Seed Availability: Readily available

Cultivars

  • Cultivars commonly recommended by the Hawai`i Natural Resources Conservation Service include: 'Newdak', 'Steele', 'Swan', 'Valley'.
  • 'Coker 234' is rust resistant and has been used successfully on Lanai on abandoned pineapple fields.
  • Work by Evensen, Osgood, and El-Swaify suggests that the 'Walken' and 'Coker' cultivars are suitable for cover crops in Hawai`i.

Mixes

with clover, pea, vetch or other legumes

Soil Improvements

  • Poor for loosening subsoil
  • Fair at releasing P and K
  • Very good at loosening topsoil

Pest Control

  • Root knot nematode susceptible (NRCS)
  • Good disease suppression
  • Very good allelopathic properties
  • Excellent weed suppression
  • Poor for attracting beneficial insects

Management Attributes

  • Good trafficability
  • Rapid establishment and growth ideal for short windows

Notes

  • Oats contain allelopathic compounds in their roots which can hinder weed growth for a few weeks. Minimize this by waiting three weeks after oat incorporation before seeding a susceptible crop (lettuce, cress, timothy, rice, wheat, peas, cotton).
  • Resistant oat cultivars can minimize rusts, smuts and blights.
  • Oats are prone to lodging in N rich soil.

Uses in the Pacific Region

No information is available in this database on this topic.

Uses in Hawai`i

The Hawai`i Natural Resources Conservation Service Technical Guide includes common Oats (cv. 'Newdak', 'Steele', 'Swan', 'Valley'). Their specification describes common Oats as:

  • Tolerates acid/low fertility soils;
  • Minimum broadcast seeding rates of 70 lbs. pure live seed/acre;
  • pH range from 5.5-7.0;
  • Approximate growing time 60 days;
  • Approximate dry matter yield 2 tons/acre;
  • Approximate N content 16 lbs./T dry matter;
  • Add 20 lbs. of nitrogen/ton dry matter at plow down;
  • Optimum planting period year round;
  • Elevation range from 0-4000 ft.

There is a NRCS specification supplement for Sugar Cane which includes optimal seeding dates by field office (ranging between 9/15 and 5/1), row widths, and management recommendations.

Evensen, Osgood and El-Swaify conducted five years of research with small grains as cover crops on sugarcane plantations for erosion and weed control. Variety trials for 51 cultivars of oat, barley, wheat, ryegrass and rye grain on Hawai`i, Molokai, and Lanai were compared. Of the oat trials, varieties 'Walken' and 'Coker' were the most promising (in terms of vigorous growth, rapid soil cover, weed suppression, low plant height, and lack of flowering). This information has applications for pineapple, coffee and tropical fruit tree orchards.

A. Arakaki, UH Cooperative Extension Service, reports using rust resistant cultivar 'Coker 234' successfully on abandoned pineapple plantations on Lanai.

For More Information


References

Evensen, C.I., Osgood, R.V., & El-Swaify, S.A. Small grain cover crops in Hawaii for erosion and weed control. A poster paper presented at the conference on "Cover Crops, Soil Quality and Ecosystems", March 12-14,1997.

1998. Managing Cover Crops Profitably, 2nd ed. Sustainable Agriculture Network, National Agricultural Library, Beltsville, USA. pp. 212.

USDA Natural Resources Conservation Service, Hawai`i Field Office Technical Guide, Section IV, Code 340 "Cover and Green Manure Crop" May 1992. Pacific Islands Area Field Office Technical Guide (eFOTG) - East Area


Pangola grass

Pangola Grass
Digitaria eriantha

syn: D. decumbens, D. pentzii, D. eriantha subsp. Pentzii

Also known as: Digitgrass

Summary

  • Tropical to subtropical grass with some tolerance for warm temperate climates
  • Used as forage grass, cover crop, and for erosion control
  • Easily established
  • Once established resists weed invasion
  • No seed available - only established by vegetative propagation (sprigs, plugs)
  • Easy to eradicate
  • Reported that can be used in rotation with sugar cane & pineapple for nematode control
  • Subject to a stunting virus disease and rust

Common Name

Its common name is Pangola grass, Pongola grass, pangola digit grass (Bogdan).

Scientific Name

The scientific name is Digitaria eriantha (Syn: D. decumbens, D. pentzii, D. eriantha subsp. Pentzii).

Cultivars

'Transvala' and 'Pangola' are recommended by Hawai`i NRCS, 'Pangola' being reported as root knot nematode resistant.

Seed Description

Pangola grass does not produce viable seed (Bogdan).

Seedling Description

No information is available in this database on this topic.

Mature Plant Description

Pangola grass is a stoloniferous perennial. Stems are up to 120 cm (47 in) high. The leaves are linear-lanceolate to linear, 10-25 cm (4-10 in) long and 2-7 mm wide. The inflorescence has one to two whorls with 5 to 10 spikes that are up to 13 cm (5 in) long each, with many spikelets 2.7-3.0 mm long (Bogdan).

Temperature

Pangola grass is a tropical to subtropical species. Roots grow best at soil temperatures of 27-30°C (80.6-86°F). Little growth is observed below 16°C (60.8°F) and above 41° (104°F) (Bogdan). In Hawai`i it grows well between 25-40°C (77-104°F) (FAO).

Origin and Geographic Distribution

Pangola grass is thought to originate in the Pongola River in the eastern Transvaal in South Africa or in adjacent Zululand districts. It was first cultivated near Pretoria, South Africa. It has since been introduced to the USA, West Indies, Central America, and northern parts of South America. Subsequently it was brought to Australia, West and East Africa, the Philippines, Hawai`i, India, Pakistan, and Malaysia. It is now cultivated in the majority of subtropical, tropical and temperate warm countries (Bogdan).

Ecology

Pangola grass originates from a country with annual rainfalls ranging between 500 to 900 mm (about 20-35 in) and with a well-pronounced dry season (Bogdan).

Water

Pangola grass grows best under humid conditions with rainfalls that reach or exceed 1000 mm (about 40 in). It canwithstand drought. It can tolerate slight waterlogging but not sustained flooding. It originates from a country with annual rainfalls ranging between 500 to 900 mm (about 20-35 in) and with a well-pronounced dry season (Bogdan).

Nutrients

Pangola grass responds well to NPK and micronutrient fertilization (especially Cu). Fertilizer N decreases Pangola grass tolerance to low temperatures and should not be applied when cool/cold season approaches (Bogdan).

Soil pH

Pangola grass tolerates a broad pH range from 4.5 to 8.0 (Bogdan).

Soil Type

Pangola grass will grow on a wide range of soils, and slightly less well on clays than loams. It is tolerant of Al in the soil (Bogdan).

Shade Tolerance

Pangola grass has fair shade tolerance (NRCS).

Salinity Tolerance

Pangola grass is tolerant of small to moderate amounts of sodium or sodium chloride in the soil (Bogdan).

Herbicide Sensitivity

No information is available in this database on this topic.

Life Cycle

No information is available in this database on this topic.

Seeding Rate

Pangola grass does not produce viable seed and is propagated vegetatively (Bogdan).

Seeding Depth

Not applicable.

Seeding Method

Not applicable.

Seeding Dates

Not applicable.

Inoculation

Not applicable.

Seed Cost

Not applicable.

Seed Availability

Not available.

Days to Flowering

No information is available in this database on this topic.

Days to Maturity

No information is available in this database on this topic.

Seed Production

Pangola grass is propagated vegetatively (Bogdan). A small nursery for planting larger areas can easily be established from a few vegetative sprigs or stolons.

Seed Storage

Not applicable.

Growth Habit

Pangola grass grows vigorously and spreads rapidly by stolons. It does not produce viable seeds (FAO).

Maximum Height

Pangola grass grows to a maximum height of about 120-cm (47 in) high but is usually much shorter (Bogdan).

Root System

No information is available in this database on this topic.

Establishment

  • Pangola grass is established by stolons or stem pieces.
  • Sprig/stolon planting rate: 40-80 bu/ac at a maximum 3 ft. by 3 ft. spacing (NRCS).
  • Plant into moist soil and disk in (Bogdan).
  • For large areas, cut vegetative material in a chaff-cutter or forage harvester adjusted to allow plant pieces with a few nodes. Broadcast vegetative material over plowed field and disk. Alternately broadcast whole runners and disk (FAO).
  • Maintain a small nursery for future plantings.

Maintenance

Maintain adequate fertilization and thatch removal to prevent insect pests (Hanna).

Mowing

No information is available in this database on this topic. When grazed, pangola grass gives satisfactory growth and performance under almost any density of grazing (Bogdan).

Incorporation

Not applicable. Not used as a green manure.

Harvesting

Although primarily used for grazing, pangola can be hayed and made into silage, which is done in Florida (Bogdan).

Equipment

No information is available in this database on this topic.

Uses

  • Grazing by ruminants
  • Cover crop in orchards
  • Erosion control

Mixtures

Pangola grass is aggressive and tends to suppress the companion legume in grass/legume mixtures. This is accentuated by nitrogen fertilizer additions (which decreases or eliminates the legumes). In Hawai`i, Whitney (1970) reported a decrease in Desmodium intortum grown with Pangola from 50% to below 10% when 410 kg N/ha was applied. This was further reduced to below 1% when cuts were reduced from 10 to 5 weeks.

In Hawai`i a pangola grass/D. intortum mixture did well and gave 10.8-17.0 tons dry matter/ha as compared to 7.5 tons with a pangola/D. canum mixture or 3.8 tons from pangola alone (Bogdan).

While many legumes have been grown with pangola grass (Trifolium repens, Lotononis bainesii, Centrosema pubescens, Macroptilium atropurpureum, Desmodium spp., Glycine wightii, Stylosanthes guianensis), in general the legumes do not last more than 2 or 3 years (Bogdan).

The FAO reports that pangola does well with Lotonis bainesii. In Florida, it has been grown satisfactorily with Stylosanthes humilis and Macroptilium atropurpureum with low N additions.

Biomass

No information is available in this database on this topic.

N Contribution

No information is available in this database on this topic.

Non-N Nutrient Contribution

No information is available in this database on this topic.

Effects on Water

No information is available in this database on this topic.

Effects on Soil

No information is available in this database on this topic.

Effects on Livestock

This grass has no toxicity to animals (FAO). Crude protein content of Pangola grass ranges between 3 to 14% of the dry matter. In Hawai`i, Plucknett (1970) reported liveweight gains of 700-850 kg/ha on Pangola grass that had been limed and fertilized with N. Usual liveweight gains reported range from 100 to 400 kg/ha (Bogdan).

Pest Effects, Insects

The yellow sugar-cane aphid (Sipha flava) is an important pest in the Caribbean area (Florida, Trinidad, Puerto Rico, Jamaica, Cuba).

Armyworms of the genera Laphigma, Spodoptera and Mocis occasionally cause severe damage.

Taxoptera graminis, Blissus leucopterus, Antonina graminis and A. graminis have been reported to damage Pangola grass.

Sogata fructifera, an aphid, is responsible for transmitting the very destructive stunting virus (Bogdan).

Pest Effects, Nematodes

  • Pangola grass is susceptible to some root nematodes (Bogdan).
  • The 'Pangola' cultivar is reported to be root knot nematode resistant (NRCS).
  • In Puerto Rico, Ayala and Gonzales report that pangola grass is a good rotation for pineapple as it controlled Meloidogyne incognita, Criconemoides, and Helicotylenchus, and was partially resistant to Rotylenchulus reniformis.

Pest Effects, Diseases

Stunt virus which first reduces herbage yields and then kills the plants has been reported in Surinam, Guyana, Jamaica, Malaya, Borneo, Taiwan and Fiji. Resistant cultivars are being developed (Bogdan). Rust (Puccinia oahuensis) is a major disease of Pangola grass (FAO).

Pest Effects, Weeds

Pangola grass establishes quickly and suppresses weeds once established (FAO).

Pest Effects, Vertebrates

No information is available in this database on this topic.


Uses in the Pacific Region

Pangola grass is reported to be affected by a stunt virus in Fiji (FAO).

Uses in Hawai`i

The Hawai`i Natural Resources Conservation Service Technical Guide includes Pangola (also known as Digitgrass) (cv. 'Transvala' and 'Pangola'). Their specification describes Pangola (or Digitgrass) as follows

  • Tolerates acid/low fertility soils;
  • pH range from 4.2-8.5;
  • Planting rate 40-80 bu/ac (sprigs or stolons, maximum 3x3 ft. spacing),
  • Medium maintenance required;
  • Fair shade tolerance;
  • Fair drought tolerance;
  • Rainfall range of 40+ inches;
  • Medium rate of establishment;
  • Elevation range from 0-2500 ft.

The 'Pangola' cultivar is reported to be root knot nematode resistant.

In Hawai`i, Whitney (1970) reported a decrease in Desmodium intortum grown with Pangola from 50% to below 10% when 410 kg N/ha was applied. This was further reduced to below 1% when cuts were reduced from 10 to 5 weeks (Bogdan).

In Hawai`i a pangola grass/D. intortum mixture did well and gave 10.8-17.0 tons dry matter/ha as compared to 7.5 tons with a pangola/D. canum mixture or 3.8 tons from pangola alone (Bogdan).

Rust (Puccinia oahuensis) is a major disease of Pangola grass (FAO).


References

Ayala, A.J., and Gonzales, R.E. 1967. Pangola grass as a rotation crop for pineapple nematode control. J. Agric. Univ. P. Rice, Vol. 51, Issue 1, pp. 94-96.

Bogdan, A.V. 1977. Tropical Pasture and Fodder Plants. Longman Inc., New York. pp. 111-123.

Evans, Dale O., Joy, Robert J., & Chia, C.L., 1988. Cover Crops for Orchards in Hawaii. Hawaii Institute of Tropical Agriculture and Human Resources, University of Hawaii at Manoa, Honolulu, Hawaii, United States. 16 pp.

FAO Grassland Index Web Site

USDA Natural Resources Conservation Service, Hawai`i Field Office Technical Guide, Section IV, Code 340 "Cover and Green Manure Crop" May 1992. Pacific Islands Area Field Office Technical Guide (eFOTG) - East Area

Related Information on Pangolagrass


Perennial peanut

Perennial Peanut
Arachis pintoi

Perennial Peanut

Also known as: Pintoi Peanut, Amarillo Peanut

Benefits and Costs of Using Perennial Peanut as Living Mulch for Fruit Trees in Hawai‘i (downloadable .pdf)

Summary

  • Tropical low growing (about 8 inches high), non-twining, nitrogen-fixing legume
  • Used as a cover crop in many perennial crops including mango, avocado, coffee, banana, oil palm, macadamia, cocoa, cassava, citrus, pineapples, plantains, dryland taro, and hearts of palm
  • Used as ground cover in Hawai`i landscapes
  • Used for intensively managed grass/legume pastures in South America (CIAT, Colombia)
  • Used for pasture legume in tree plantations
  • Takes about 6 months to become well established and requires weed control during that time. Once established it provides excellent weed control.
  • A. pintoi scored low (not currently recognized as invasive in Hawaii, and not likely to have major ecological or economic impacts on other Pacific Islands) based on the HP-WRA screening process.
  • Some shade tolerance reported
  • Tolerant of high Aluminum saturation. Some indications of tolerance to Manganese.

Common Name

Its common name is perennial peanut or pinto peanut (Hensley). According to Cook, the common name is pinto peanut or thua lisong tao (Thailand).

Scientific Name

The scientific name is Arachis pintoi Krap. & Greg., nom. nud. (Cook).

Cultivar

Two popular cultivars are ‘Golden Glory’ which is a popular landscape ground cover in Hawai`i and ‘Amarillo’ which was developed in Australia for forage and cover crop uses (Hensley). CIAT accessions are used primarily as pasture legumes. Several peanut cultivars are being grown at the Mealani Experiment station on the Big Island (Fukumoto and Yamasaki). There are numerous synonyms and some confusion over varietal names. (Cook et al.).

Seed Description

Seeds are light brown, 8-11 mm x 4-6 mm (Cook).

Seedling Description

Perennial peanut seedling

Seedlings germinate in 7-10 days. With adequate resources, they grow rapidly and develop a deep tap root. Stolons of ‘CIAT 17434‘ seedlings begin to extend at 30 days after planting (Mitschele).

Mature Plant Description

Perennial or pinto peanut species and cultivars are low growing,  about 8 inches (20 cm) high, non-twining, nitrogen-fixing legumes. The plants have four oval leaflets on each petiole and light to dark yellow, pea-like flowers. Varieties can differ slightly in leaf size, shape and color. The seed is an underground nut, one per pod, which is not edible. Plants flower year round (Hensley). Stems grow along the ground and root at the nodes (Glover).

Temperature

Perennial peanut is adapted to the tropics (Cook).

Origin and Geographic Range

Perennial peanut originates from central Brazil (collected from the mouth of the Jequitinhonha River). It has since been distributed to Argentina, Australia, Colombia, the United States, and more recently to South East Asia, Central America and the Pacific (Cook).

Ecology

Central Brazil’s climate is humid tropical, with rainfalls ranging from 1800-2000 mm (70-80 in) from October to May and 200 mm (8 inches) from June to September. Perennial peanut grows naturally in red sandy-loam alluviums under low forest with a fairly dense canopy (Cook).

Water

Perennial peanut grows best in areas receiving an annual rainfall of 40 inches (1000 mm) or more. It can withstand 3-4 months of drought, but will shed many of its leaves (Glover). It is adapted to low areas (with sandy loam soils) that are wet to flooded in the wet season. It will not persist on waterlogged, poorly structured clays (Cook). Irrigation is especially critical if cuttings are being used for establishment.

Nutrients

Perennial peanut originates from central Brazil and is adapted to that region. It tolerates soils with low fertility (it is a legume and fixes its own nitrogen). It tolerates soils with 70% or greater Al saturation. It performs best with >3% organic matter in the soil (Glover). In pot experiments it has shown a tolerance to Mn (Cook).

Soil pH

Although naturally adapted to areas of lower pH, under cultivation it can adapt to pH ranges from low to neutral (Cook). Whitening or chlorosis of new growth may occur at alkaline pH (Hensley et al.)

Soil Type

Perennial peanut's native habitat is in red, sandy loam alluviums, seasonally wet to flooded. Under cultivation it has proven adaptable to soils ranging from sand to clay texture. It will not persist on seasonally waterlogged, poorly structured clays (Cook). In a greenhouse study in Hawaii, seedlings of ‘CIAT 17434‘ grew better in a relatively fertile mollisol (Waialua series) than a weathered oxisol (Wahiawa series) when plants were not inoculated or fertilized. However, this difference in growth was not observed when seeds were inoculated with cowpea strain rhizobia (Mitschele).

Shade Tolerance

Perennial peanut reportedly grows well under heavy (70-80%) shade (Glover). However, this contradicts observations on several orchards in Hawaii that peanut biomass decreases as tree canopies close.

Salinity Tolerance

Perennial peanut has a low tolerance for salinity (Cook).

Herbicide Sensitivity

The herbicides Dual® , Balan Granular® , Treflan Granules® , Snapshot Granular® , Fusilade II® , and Vantage® are reported not harmful to pinto peanut at recommended label rates. Ronstarä can yellow the leaves and kill the plant (Hensley).

Life Cycle

Seedlings develop quickly with good growing conditions when planted at a rate of several plants per square meter. Complete ground cover can be reached by about 6 months via a network of stolons. Flowering begins 3-4 weeks after emergence and continues through the growing season. Flowering intensifies after rain or irrigation. Seeds remain viable in the ground for more than one season (Cook).

Seeding Rate

Planting perennial peanut

Although rates as low as 17-22 lbs./acre (15-20 kg/ha) have been recommended (Glover), higher seeding rates (40-50 lbs/acre) may be prefered to hasten groundcover establishment in fruit tree orchards (Radovich and Sugano).

Seeding Depth

1-2 inch deep (Hensley) to 1 inch (2-3 cm) deep (Glover).

Seeding Method

Drill if possible. For small areas, seed may be drilled with a hand planter. Seed can be broadcast and covered or rolled. Consider seeding with a nurse crop of buckwheat or alfalfa to control weeds during establishment (Glover).

Seeding Dates

Year round in Hawai`i. To reduce the need for irrigation during establishment, seeding should be done just prior to the rainy season.

Inoculation

Inoculate all propagation material (seedpods, seed, stolons) with cowpea type rhizobia (Hensley, Glover).

Seed Cost

As of 2/09/09, seed was locally available for $15/lb. 

Seed Availability

Readily available.

Days to Flowering

Flowering commences 3-4 weeks after emergence and continues through the growing season (Cook).

Days to Maturity

No information is available in this database on this topic.

Seed Production

No information is available in this database on this topic.

Seed Storage

Seed should be dried and stored under cool conditions with low humidity (Cook).

Perennial Peanut under sago palms (photo: DeFrank)

Growth Habit

Low growing and non-twining. Once established, crowds out weeds effectively. It will compete with other groundcovers (Hensley).

Maximum Height

Perennial peanut grows to a maximum height of about 8 inches (20 cm). (Cook).

Root System

It is stoloniferous and will develop a strong taproot (see above) on the older crowns as well as large numbers of nodules on both the taproot and subsidiary roots (Cook).

Establishment

Perennial peanut can be established by seed, by cuttings or by stolons. Superior rates of biomass production and leaf area are reported in plants from seed compared with those of vegetative material (Kerridge & Hardy; Mitschele).

Cuttings: Cuttings should be 4-8 inches long and partially buried 3-5 inches deep in soil in pots or a prepared seedbed. For quick soil cover, plant cuttings 10-15 inches apart. Do not allow cuttings to dry out before, during or after planting (Hensley).

Stolons (runners, sprigs): Remove stolon section from the mother plant and place 1/2 - 1 inch deep in the soil at 10-12 inch spacing. Do not allow cuttings to dry out before, during or after planting (Hensley).

Maintenance

Irrigate as needed or plant at the beginning of the rainy season (Glover).

Mowing

Mow at 2-3 inches the first year to reduce weeds and stimulate lateral growth. Subsequent mowings should be at 6-8 inch height (Glover).

Incorporation

Not applicable. Not generally used as a green manure.

Harvesting

Not generally harvested, although taller growing accessions can be used for hay making or cut-and-carry forage systems (Cook).

Equipment

No information is available in this database on this topic.

Perennial peanut as groundcover in papaya orchard

Uses

  • ‘Amarillo’ and Golden glory are used as a cover crop in fruit trees, coffee, and other crops in Hawai`i
  • ‘Golden Glory’ is a common ground cover in Hawai`I landscapes.
  • CIAT (Centro Internacional de Agricultura Tropical) releases are used for intensively managed grass/legume pastures in South America.

Mixtures

No information is available in this database on this topic.

Biomass

Above ground biomass in established (3+ years) peanut plots ranges widely (0.2 kg - 4.0 kg per square meter), depending on plant density, season, management, soil type and other factors (Mitschele). Above ground biomass production at the Waimanalo experiment station one year after planting was 1.75-4.25 kg per square meter, depending on planting material and density (Radovich and Sugano, 2009).

N Contribution

Perennial peanut may reduce nitrogen availability in the soil during establishment. Soil solution nitrate levels under perennial peanut at the Poamoho and Waimanalo experiment stations was 30-60% lower than under black weed mat one year after peanut planting (Radovich and Sugano, 2009). This effect was not observed under older, well established peanut (Mitschele).

Non-N Nutrient Contribution

No significant influence of peanut on total organic carbon in the soil has been observed in orchards on Oahu. P, K and Ca have have been observed to be lower under peanut compared to black plastic mat or bareground (Mitschele; Radovich and Sugano).

Effects on Water

Soil water retention has been reported to be higher under perennial peanut than bare ground or black plastic mat (Mitschele; Radovich and Sugano).

Effects on Soil

Soil bulk density has been observed to increase with perennial peanut density, likely a result of improved moisture retention (Mitschele).

Evolution of CO2 in soils (soil respiration) under 1 year-old stands of peanut was higher than that under black plastic mulch, indicating higher microbial activity under the peanut (Radovich and Sugano). Free-living nematode levels were low 7 months after establishment. No other data directly quantifying or qualifying soil microbial populations is available.

Effects on Livestock

Perennial peanut is used as a pasture legume in tree plantations and as an intensively managed grass/legume pasture. In vitro digestibility varies from 60-76%, N concentrations from 2.5-3.0% and P concentrations from 0.18-0.37%. It is well accepted by cattle at all growth stages (Cook).

Pest Effects, Insects

Slugs and snails can be a problem during establishment and may require control via pesticide baits. Chinese rose beetles may become a problem later on (Hensley).

Pest Effects, Nematodes

‘Amarillo’ has moderate to high resistance to various root-knot nematodes (Meloidogyne spp.) but is susceptible to the root-lesion nematode (Pratylenchus brachyurus) (Cook).

Pest Effects, Diseases

‘Amarillo’ is reported to be resistant to major groundnut diseases, rust (Puccinia arachidis) and leaf-spot (Mycosphaerella spp.). Other fungi have been isolated from leaf-spots, but no long-term or serious damage has been reported (Cook).

Pest Effects, Weeds

During establishment, weed control is needed (via mowing, hoeing, hand weeding, herbicides). Consider seeding with a nurse crop of buckwheat or alfalfa to control weeds during establishment (Glover). Once a good stand of perennial peanut is in place, weed suppression is excellent (Hensley).

Pest Effects, Vertebrates

Rats and mice are attracted to the nuts and can be a problem (Cook).


Uses in the Pacific Region

Perennial peanut under royal palms (photo: DeFrank)

  • Kerridge & Hardy report very promising legume field trials with Arachis pintoi cv. ‘Amarillo’ in Fiji. Future experiments will investigate fertilizer requirements, seed production, and milk and meat production of cattle grazing A. pintoi-based pastures.
  • In Vanuatu, Kerridge & Hardy report several forage Arachis accessions are being evaluated as part of the Vanuatu Pasture Improvement Project. It performed well in heavily grazed Brachiaria decumbens pastures. Its value as a cover crop was unclear due to its inability to suppress weeds. Disadvantages reported in Vanuatu include: high cost of seed, rapid decline in germination percentage in humid environments, and a 12 month time span to develop an effective rhizobial symbiosis. Arachis accessions suited to low-fertility, high-pH coralline soils would be helpful to smallholders with cattle under coconuts in the Pacific region.

Uses in Hawaii

  • A pintoi is used as a living mulch in fruit trees and other crops across the State, but is not recommended as a living mulch in short-cycle (annual) crops.
  • Clement and DeFrank conducted a field trial using ground covers during the establishment of Heart-of-Palm (1998). A. pintoi formed a closed canopy slowly and only controlled weeds after forming a thick canopy, but required less mowing after establishment. All vegetative covers delayed heart-of-palm harvest and reduced yields 1.5 years after planting (possibly due to strong competition for nitrogen). A combination of polypropylene (adjacent to plants) and vegetative covers (in service rows) may provide the best solution.
  • Subsequent trials with guava and sapodilla on Oahu confirmed nitrogen competition between peanut living mulch and fruit trees (Radovich and Sugano). Trees grown with perennial peanut ground cover had lower tissue nitrogen levels than trees grown with black weed mat. These lower tissue N levels corresponded with visibly chlorotic leaves and lower soil solution nitrate levels.
  • A farmer in lower Kula (Maui) has used A. pintoi with some success in a mixed orchard system, but has observed serious reduction in foliage as tree canopies close. This grower also suspects that competition for nutrients is greatest with shallow rooted trees like coffee.
  • A farmer in Hakalau (Hawai`i Island) reports using Arachis pintoi as a permanent live mulch under perennial tropical vegetables such as Sauropus androgynus (chekkurmanis) for many years in a permanent system. Their experience is that the perennial peanut requires extensive weed control during the first six months, if a pure stand is to be established. Eliminating most weeds prior to planting (using successive cultivations, herbicide, heat, or plastic mulch) makes establishment much easier and cheaper. After establishment, they have found that even well established plots have to be checked periodically to remove certain difficult weed species, especially vines and trailing grasses that can come in from the perimeter and can out-compete the peanut cover due to the fact that it is non-twining.
  • An organic farmer on O’ahu stopped fertilizer applications to fruit trees three years after the peanut had established, without observing adverse effects on yield. Soil tests confirmed adequate levels of macronutrients under perennial peanut (Mitschele). This grower reported increasing slug and snail populations until three years after establishment when snail population decline coincided with an increased incidence of invertebrate predators (planarians). Periodic weeding of the peanut is still required 3-5 years after establishment.
  • An organic farmer in Molokai reports having a problem with southern leaf blight on Arachis pintoi. The plant is also difficult to eradicate under an organic program without access to chemical controls.
  • Dr. Joe DeFrank, UH Manoa, reports difficulty in eradicating Arachis pintoi from a plantation, due to its ability root at the nodes.
  • In a preliminary trial on the Hamakua coast (Hawai`i Island), perennial peanut was drilled between rows of taro, survived well under heavy shade (12,000 taro plants/acre), and formed a dense cover within 6-7 months (Glover).

For More Information

Benefits and Costs of Using Perennial Peanut as Living Mulch for Fruit Trees in Hawai‘i

Perennial Peanut Groundcover

Arachis pintoi Fact Sheet

Perennial Peanut Demonstration Garden


References

Clement, C.R.; DeFrank, J. 1998. The use of ground covers during establishment of heart-of-palm plantations in Hawaii. HortScience. Vol 33, Issue 5. pp 814-815.

Cook, B.G., Pengelly, B.C., Brown, S.D., Donnelly, J.L., Eagles, D.A., Franco, M.A., Hanson, J., Mullen, B.F., Partridge, I.J., Peters, M. and Schultze-Kraft, R. 2005. Tropical Forages: an interactive selection tool., [CD-ROM], CSIRO, DPI&F(Qld), CIAT and ILRI, Brisbane, Australia.

Cook, R.G. 1992. Arachis pintoi Krap. & Greg., nom. nud. In:’t Mannetje, L. & Jones, R.M. (Editors): Plant Resources of South-East Asia No 4. Forages. Pudoc-DLO, Wageningen, the Netherlands. pp. 48-50.

Fukumoto, G. and M. Yamasaki. 2001. Perennial Peanut Demonstration Garden. Cooperative Extension Service. College of Tropical Agriculture and Human Resources.

Hensley, David, Yogi, Julie, & DeFrank, Joseph. October 1997. Perennial Peanut Groundcover. College of Tropical Agriculture and Human Resources, University of Hawaii at Manoa, Honolulu, USA. 2 pp. Free publication available at CTAHR Website: http://www2.ctahr.hawaii.edu/oc/freepubs/

Kerridge, Peter C. & Hardy, Bill (Editors), 1994. Biology and Agronomy of Forage Arachis, (CIAT Publication; No. 240), Centro Internacional de Agricultura Tropical, Cali, Colombia. 209 p.

Glover, Nancy. August 1994. Perennial Peanut (Arachis pintoi), ADAP Integrated Farm Development Project, University of Hawai`i, 1994, 4 p.

Mitchele, B. 2007. Rapid Evaluation and Screening of Archis pintoi contributions to soil nitrate and select soil quality Characteristics as a Living Mulch System. M.Sc. Thesis. College of Tropical Agriculture and Human Resources, University of Hawaii at Manoa.

Radovich, T.J.K and J. Sugano. 2009. Enhancing Soil Quality and Fruit Tree Growth with Arachis pintoi Cover Crops in Hawai’i Orchards. HFBF project Final Report.


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